Tuesday, January 28, 2020

A Look At Marriage In Malaysia Religion Essay

A Look At Marriage In Malaysia Religion Essay Since long ago, policies of marriage are closely associated with the Malaysians religious customs, race and culture of different ethnic groups in the society. With reauthorization of the bill looming, much of the policies and cultures have been debated and has shifted on the questions of how best to build on this success of the marriage. Regarding the nature of marriage in Malaysia, established custom and tradition has been maintained and preserved by many families. The question here is that, is there any change in the policies which leads to the challenge of such tradition? Here, we would look at how such policy changes impact the people in various countries. Comparison within countries will be made. In Malaysia, there are two types of marriages which are practiced and governed differently under different pieces of legislations and policies. Thus, for easier understanding, both types of marriages will be discussed differently and separately. Marriage in Malaysia In the Malaysia position, there are two categories of the marriage procedures, namely the Islamic procedure for Muslim couples and the civil procedure for non-Muslims. Primarily, both types of marriages are different from each other in terms of custom, cultural and beliefs as well as their procedural regulations. For Muslims marriage, the Syaria Law will govern onto them and also their customary practices. While for the non-Muslims marriage, which also known as the civil marriage, the particular law will govern them which is the Law Reform (Marriage and Divorce) Act 1976. While a formal process of marriage registration is required, wedding ceremonies are typically also conducted in accordance to the couples culture, tradition or religious customs. Policies Of Marriages The policy in marriages means the aspects applied, considered and practiced by the people in the society. These policies may includes aspects likes the historical background of the culture of each society, lifestyle of the peoples in their society, religious cultures and influenced, economic, human desires and needs and other aspect. According to al-Ghazali, pleasure is the attaining of the object of desire, while desire is the souls inclination to possess the object of its yearning (shawq). When sensitive and rational faculties function well, they are accompanied by a glow, as it were; such radiance is called pleasure by Aristotle. Hedonism asserts that pleasure does not differ in kind or quality. For hedonists, pleasures differ only in degree or quantity, and in duration or intensity; hence their propagation of the expansion of the sensate life. In reality, however, pleasures are of different kinds, and they differ as do the human activities they accompany. Pleasures are of three kinds. Firstly, pleasure related to the life of the mind, such as the pleasures of learning, scientific investigation, intellectual contemplation, and wisdom. Secondly, the biological pleasure, which is common to man and the other animals, such as eating, drinking and sex. Thirdly, the socio-political pleasure, such as the lust for conquest or the desire for social position. Of the three kinds of human pleasure, however, the noblest and the most exclusive to him is the pleasure related to the life of the mind, which endures forever and is rewarded by everlasting bliss in the life to come. According to al-Ghazali, the following eight varieties of pleasure eating, drinking, sex, attire, habitation, smell, hearing and sight are followed in ascending order by the pleasures of social status (jah), accumulation of wealth, rivalry and competition. The uncontrolled desire for the pleasures of eating, drinking and sex are particularly nefarious from the religio-ethical point of view. In relation to these desires, Aristotle and al-Ghazali observe, most men err on the side of excess. As such, training these desires is the starting point of all character building. It is important to note the fact that the last Quranic verse revealed chronologically begins with teaching what are the foods forbidden in Islam, and ending with the statement that God had perfected the religion for those who truly want to submit to Him  [1]  . Likewise, as far as sex is concerned, relations outside of marriage is forbidden. Within the bonds of matrimony, sex practised in moderation is essential. Indeed, marriage is instituted for the preservation of the species and the prevention of diseases which otherwise can harm the body that has no lawful outlet for sexual desire. Through the institution of marriage, one is enabled to satisfy the urgent de ­Ã‚ ­mand of sexual desire. Upon marriage, one enters new challenges, which of providing for a family through lawful earnings, of fulfilling the rights of spouse and offspring, and of tolerating the weaknesses of each other. This requires that the issue of the basic material needs of poor families is adequately addressed in socio-economic policy. In addition, a reform has been a huge success, if measured by reductions in caseloads with regard to the policy and cultural in marriage in Malaysia. With regard against the cultural and policy in marriage in Malaysia position, there are several of policies and cultural which been adopted and developed or changes. In addition, these policies and cultural in marriage matters, have been adopted and practiced by the people in the society for quite long duration of times. Thus, these policies and cultural in marriage matters may be consider as the policies and customary law in the ambit of marriage in Malaysia. Marriage Culture The culture of marriage was starts with high ideals, the secular education movement sought to help the common person by extending its social program through high school. Everyone was urged to finish high school. The business of education grew as other business grew with it. Agribusiness pushed people off of the small farm, while the attractions of the city, the sophistication of higher culture, and the new corporate economic growth drew people into the cities. Then the pressure was on to attend college. Courses were gradually dumbed down in order to accomodate the droves of young people who are culturally trained in them and for them. Education was billed as the path to success, and it was true, if over stated. Competition in the work force led many to seek higher degrees still, postponing marriage in many cases well past their sexual prime or desirability. The growth of mass education in this century led to the herding of our young people together with others the same age. More and more, coeducation became the norm at higher and higher age levels. Young people found themselves away from their parents more, and developed romantic relationships, apart from their parents supervision, with friends in high school. Later this was also the case in colleges which were taking in more and more students and were becoming coed. This tended to effect cultural feelings about a the relative difference in age in a young couple. The extended adolesence of our young has proved profitable for these institutions and for other big businesses as well, but it effectively competed with many of the regular people it claimed to help, financially and culturally defrauding them to some extent, if unintentionally. Young women are to be protected, primarily by their fathers. Fathers are traditionally understood to be their authority and protection- the ones who give (them)in marriage to another protector, their future husband. The larger society cannot protect them. Thus our single young women should not move about so freely among young men as is done currently in our fornicating, aborting, single mom culture. Suitors should woo with the girls parents nearby. Parties where marriageable young people meet should be arranged by the parents in the community. It is to be known that the earlier culture in marriage were too restrictive on women and on marriage in general. We of course are so much happier with our progress in fornication, unwanted pregnancies, broken hearts, abortion guilt, enflamed and economically exploited lust, and comercialized exploitation of postponed marriage frustration. Also, the marriage culture earlier, parents can find at least some time for this important phase of their childrens life. I think they had better do something for their children, and not just leave their opportunities completely to the larger culture which does such a poor job.In any case, certainly even arranged marriages, for all their strictness, would be better than our cultures flacidity. Our culture revels in distracting and wasting its youths years of greatest relations and economic strength. Carefully arranged and chaperoned events would improve a girls chances of being courted by serious suitors. Parents can be helpful by keeping it fun and light hearted, or at least casual. They should not make it seem like a big deal, because this will make the young people tense. Acceptance of moderate age difference has been hard to find at coeducational institutions. Young people, naturally influenced by the environment in which they are placed, feel safer and more natural with friends their own age, having been educated for years with their age group, and they care a great deal about what their friends think. Seniors and graduates are embarrased about their attraction to freshmen girls. Potential couples try to tell themselves and others that they are just friends. Parents who themselves where raised in a co-education culture find themselves resistant to older suitors. But in light of earlier traditions where there are no minimum age of a person to get married or been married. Muslims Marriage The Islamic Family Law, which governs the Muslims marriage in Malaysia are likely as the personal status laws and traditions of all religions, has always been problematic as it discriminates against women. Since the late 19th century, Muslim countries exercised ijtihad, reinterpretation of the Quran, in order to redress some of the injustices Muslim women suffer in marriage, polygamy,divorce and issues of custody and guardianship of children. In the post-colonial era, when Muslim countries moved towards the codification of Muslim personal laws through statutory enactments, they adopted a process of selecting and combining differing juristic opinions of different schools of Islamic law (mazhab) in order to partially redress the discrimination against women. In Malaysia, the first major effort at law reform took place in the early 1980s when the Attorney-Generals chambers was appointed to prepare a model enactment to be the basis of a uniform Islamic Family Law to replace the diverse and conflicting legislations of the different states which predated independence. Muslim Family Law Reform In 1984 the Islamic Family Law was codified and passed by Parliament. This law was seen as a progressive law, regarded as one of the best Muslim Family Laws in the world. The positive, gender-sensitive reforms included: Grounds for divorce for women were expanded: 12 grounds for fasakh, (most of them from the Maliki school, because the Shafie school provides limited grounds) including cruelty on 6 different grounds: habitually assaults her or makes her life miserable, or associates with women of evil repute or leads an infamous life; attempts to force her to lead an immoral life,2 disposes of her property or prevents her from exercising her legal rights over it; or obstruct her in observance of her religious obligations or practice if he has more than one wife and does not treat her equitably; Divorce outside the court was made illegal; Polygamy without the permission of the court was made illegal; Five strict conditions to be fulfilled before court can give a man permission to take another wife: just and necessary. Grounds included sterility, physically unfit for conjugal relations, insanity; financial ability to support all wives and dependents, including would be dependents; ability to treat all wives equally; no harm caused to existing wife in respect of religion, life, body, mind, or property; no drop in standard of living, directly or indirectly, of existing wife and dependents; Wife has a right to claim her share of matrimonial assets from her husband even though she has not financially contributed to its acquisition. Her role as wife and mother are considered as contribution that enabled her husband to acquire his assets. This was considered revolutionary, not just in the Muslim world, but also in civil jurisdiction. Other Muslim countries looked at Malaysias law as a model and adopted in particular the division of matrimonial assets provision. Civil Marriage The Law Reform (Marriage and Divorce) Act, 1976 have been drafted in 1976, when the Law Reform (Marriage and Divorce) Act was passed by Parliament (enforced in 1982), the practiced in civil law reform for non-Muslim marriage has been progressive. The major reform of the Law Reform (Marriage and Divorce) Act, 1976 was the banning of polygamy among non-Muslims. Prior to that, non-Muslim men could choose to be polygamous under their respective customary laws. For instances, the Chinese customary law allowed unlimited polygamy. It also allowed Chinese men to unilaterally pronounce divorce on their wives, on any one of seven grounds: Adultery, disrespect to husbands parents, barrenness (i.e. failure to bear a son), talkativeness (nagging), jealousy suffering an infectious disease, The Law Reform (Marriage and Divorce) Act, 1976 have abolished all that and provides for divorce by mutual consent or upon petition by either spouse in an equal divorce process where the grounds for both men and women are: intolerable adultery unreasonable behaviour desertion for not less than 2 years living separately for not less than 2 years. As for the process apply after the coming in force of the Law Reform (Marriage and Divorce) Act, 1976 , this law reform was done in a democratic and consultative manner. A Parliamentary select committee was established and it travelled all over the country to listen to diverse views from the ground before this law was drafted. Guardianship of Infants Act, 1961 Other progressive reforms in civil law governing family matters took place around 1990 are several amendments to the Guardianship Act and the Distribution Act 1961. The Guardianship of Infants Act was amended in 1999 to provide for the father and mother to have equal rights to guardianship of their children. In the past, only the father was the primary guardian of his children. Alas, this amendment only benefited non-Muslims as guardianship of children for Muslims comes under the jurisdiction of shariah law. The constitutional amendment of Article 121(A) made in 1988 which provided that civil court cannot exercise jurisdiction on matters under shariah jurisdiction meant that Muslim women could not benefit from this law reform process as guardianship for Muslims comes under the jurisdiction of the Islamic Family Law. Are Muslim women then supposed to roll over and play dead while their sisters of other faiths advance forward in the pursuit of the Constitutional guarantee for equality before the law? Certainly nobody in government saw it fit to deal with the issue of the guardianship rights of Muslim mothers. This policy decision thus enables Muslim women to enjoy the benefit of law reform that applied only to their non-Muslim. The Distribution Act 1958 The Distribution Act was amended in 1999 to provide for equal inheritance for widows and widowers. Previously, the husband of a deceased woman inherited the whole estate (even her children were excluded from inheritance if she died intestate and was survived by her husband), while the wife of the deceased man inherited only ONE THIRD of his estate if he had children (the other two-thirds were given to his children), or one-half of his estate if he had no children (the other half was given to his other relatives). The amendment provides equal right to inheritance for the husband and wife and also granted children the right to inherit from their mothers as well as from their fathers estate. When laws for non-Muslim women were being amended to grant them equal rights to inheritance and guardianship, even more laws and policies were amended to discriminate against the Muslim women. The Insurance Act was amended in 1996 to provide that the Muslim beneficiary named in an insurance policy acts only as the administrator of the estate, as the deceased insurance monies is to be distributed according to faraid. This means if your husband buys a policy and names you, his wife as the beneficiary in order to protect your wellbeing upon his death, you actually will not be the sole beneficiary of that policy. The monies will be divided according to faraid, the Islamic inheritance rules. Factors of Changes Welfare The relative lack of attention to marriage promotion has prompted numbers of the public to argue and suggests that the government should act much more aggressively to pursue a pro-marriage agenda. The matter of marriage promotion rightly contend that marriage confers a variety of benefits. For example, married women have much lower rates of poverty and are less dependent on the government assistances than single or divorced mothers, and children do best being raised by both biological parents. In general, married parents also have better mental health and are more likely to be civically engaged. Whereby, its means that they have fulfil all the requirements to married. Although promoting marriage is undeniably a laudable aim, whether government have provides sufficient protects for the public interest with fair and just. Also whether it can effectively promote marriage is far from certain. Thus, due to this matter of welfare either of the infants of the marriage or each party in the marriage or even together with the party and the infant, there are changes made with regards in dealing with this matters. The changes for such is to helps poor or inability women and their children lead better lives, if the case that the marriage was dissolve. Sosio-economic The socio-economic context of men and womens lives today has drastically changed since Islams early days and our understanding of these principles needs to accordingly evolve to reflect the justice of Islam, the realities of today and what justice means today. Today, many women earn a living and maintain their families together with their husbands. Divorced or widowed mothers often provide for their children without assistance from ex-husbands or male relatives. One would expect that womens right to inheritance would expand with their responsibilities but unfortunately this has not been the case. Should the daughter who takes care of her ageing parents financially, physically, emotionally and spiritually until their death, get half what her brother inherits, even when he did not lift a finger to help? Should men continue to enjoy privileges when they fail to perform their responsibilities? In Islam, privilege is linked to responsibility. In practically, while mens privileges are recognized and codified into law, their responsibilities are somehow regarded as between them and God, and not for the state to enforce nor to punish them and deny them the privileges should they fail in performing their responsibilities. Development In Society Marriage policies and cultural are as the number of community-level approaches being implemented grows, the need to identify effective strategies also increases. Most research in the area of strengthening marriage focuses on the effects of interventions offered to individual couples. Whereby, the society have develop due to the time pass. Where, it can be said that the thinking and mentality of people in the society are change and develop. Thus, it affects to the changes. Awareness and Responsibility Although some may consider marriage outside the purview of government responsibility, it is increasingly common for government and private agencies to combine efforts to promote healthy marriages. Thus, certain culture and policy in marriage have been changes due to the consistency of such marriage culture and policy with the society and current recent situation. Social Changes They are more likely to move into and out of cohabiting relationships and are substantially more likely to be divorced or remarried than women who wait to have children until after they marry. Specifically, unwed mothers are more likely than other women to be in second or higher order marriages. Where, the internal or the external in social changes which have emphasizes on the impact of some changes into the society. Where, in addition, the social changes are beyond the care and control of the people in the society. Comparison With reference to another country, the comparison and reference made are towards two different types of policies and cultures applied and practiced by two different types of countries. Whereby, comparison and references are towards the English situation, which mostly shows the civil policies and cultures of marriage. Also, to the Islamic countries position, likes Pakistan. Thus, using a well-matched comparison examples from other countries helps to address potential selection bias because factors affecting marriage and divorce should be similar in both types of marriage. English Situation In English situation, it is known that in marriage, without hesitation that the feminist era of the Sixties ruined American women. He declares with no affection that when women started to claim their rights, the husband was forgotten. American women were given the ability to say no to their husbands. Larry is a firm believer in the Christian doctrine that the man rules the roost, and the wife should look to her man for guidance in all things, spiritual and otherwise. There are two kinds of marital paths or ideologies. Traditional views include the typical view of a family, which stresses steadiness and commitment in a framework generally accepted by the society in which one lives.. Therapeutic views focus instead on the feelings of gratification arising from love and emotional interactions. Those believing in a traditional view of marriage, most often espoused by men seeking foreign brides for marriage, often believe in the importance of time-honored institutions and value a certain amount of stability and predictability in relationships. The more therapeutic view, also known as the ideology of uncertainty, thrives on change and the ability to experience individual freedoms as well as sharing them within a family structure. Most people term the former old-fashioned and the latter modern. Also, that the demographic of age of a person mostly getting married, which, although sent equally to all age groups-was between 30 and 60, leaning to over 45. They were aware of the strong family values component to the culture. There is usually a strong father figure, and the entire family participates in the keeping the family unit stable. The policy and culture in the English situation are also practiced the sequence in sibling of each family. Where, the younger sibling will respect the elder to get married before they do. In their culture also, couples from different cultures get into relationships for the same reasons intracultural couples do. Two factors that strongly influence the facilitation of intercultural relationships are both a strong sense of ethnic identity and a profound interest in other cultures and similar education and socioeconomic status. Although the former, strong ethnic identity and interest in other cultures can make one more apt to get into an intercultural relationship, if one member is more educated or higher up in a social hierarchy, the less likely they are to marry out of their culture.   In other words,  the rules change. The problem is with marriage itself. Once relationships are built on force and what one has to do, they are no longer love relationships. People dont like to be forced. The policies and cultures in marriage in English   are slowly changing, even if some things stay the same. Their gender roles have been affected by the feminist movement, just as the industrial revolution, the rise of the labour laws, more technology at home, and the post-World War II boom changed the American family. As the woman was released from having to work in factories and better technology offered more leisure time and more focus on the children, the policies and cultural in English country changed.   Recently in currents days, in a post-feminist era where typically both partners in a marriage work and must do so to maintain their standard of living, the sharing factor becomes more evident and is desired by both male and female, as clearly indicated in my survey. Men and women alike in great numbers overwhelmingly want trust and sharing from their partner. They are looking for a best friend who understands them. Thus, from the above reference in English situation, it may be conclude that,  as long as both parties agree to the basic structure of what marriage is and should be, the partnership is more likely to be successful, no matter where the individuals were born. The people in the society who are more modern and progressive in their thinking can take heart in the findings suggest that both men and women in the English are seeking best friends, trust, understanding, and a commitment to sharing in relationship. Now that they have agreed on what they want, all they have to do is commit to being those things. Islamic Countries Main characteristics of Muslim marriage culture are consent of the competent parties, presence of witnesses and dower (Mehr) to wife. No ceremony or ritual is required for a valid Muslim marriage contract. However, Muslims observe colourful marriage customs is different parts of the world depending upon their local cultures. Most of the wedding customs are innocent in nature while some are against basic principles of Islamic marriage jurisprudence. The Muslim marriages are famous for the best in inviting and welcoming the guests. This kind of Muslim marriage culture provides people a chance to entertain guests in bulk and strengthen their social bonds. Not only bride, groom and their families but also neighbors and their friends enjoy marriage event with different rituals. Muslim marriage culture is famous for the best in inviting and welcoming the guests. Wedding customs give them a chance to entertain guests in bulk. Muslim marriage can take place at any convenient time. Also the marriage venue can be the bride or grooms house. In Muslim marriage policies and culture, couples may contract a marriage at any place and time in Muslim marriage culture. Some prefer night hours but there is no legal or religious restriction. Marriage may take place at any venue including bride or grooms house. However, generally the wedding ceremony takes place at brides place. Following common practices are observed in Muslim marriage culture: The wedding ceremony starts with delivery of a sermon by a Qazi or Imam. Though his services are not required at all for a valid Muslim marriage contract but traditionally no Muslim marriage is conducted without such a sermon. In Pakistan Nikah registrars not only register the marriages but also deliver the sermon. It not only gives a sacred character to the marriage but also helps the families to announce the marriage. A sermon may even be delivered by someone from the families of bride or groom. Pakistans Situation Generally, in Pakistani and Indian marriage cultures the Muslim family of a groom searches for the bride. Quran and Islamic marriage jurisprudence does not accept a marriage conducted without free consent of the parties. But the families used to ignore consent of the parties for one reason or the other. However, the advent of information technology and developments made by the media has been forcing the elders of the families to take a back seat. Now, in most of the case you can dictate your terms as an adult. But you still cant avoid the customs and traditions of your society if you are from the sub-continent. And I dont think that there may be some good reason to avoid these traditions. They may not have any importance in Islamic jurisprudence but they can make your marriage extremely colorful. The marriage customs in Pakistani and Indian Muslim marriage cultures are similar. Such similarities in followers of different religions with their individual religious flavor. But in case of Muslims the marriage customs are akin across the borders. (Wedding related customs in All Muslim marriage cultures) As in Pakistani and Indian marriage cultures the Mangni is essential not only in the Muslim families but also in non-Muslim ones. It equates to the ceremony of engagement in North America with all out local colors. It is exchange of rings between the marriage partners. Generally, grooms family visits the house of bride first and puts a ring in her finger. Then it is turn of the brides family to do the same. Now the modern families are allowing their children to exchange their rings in a single ceremony but most of the people are still going with the tradition. In Pakistani and Indian marriage cultures and Islamic laws does not allow the marrying parties to have any kind of relationship. It neither creates any right nor duties. It is only after valid Nikah that they become legally husband and wife. If engagement is broken by any of the party, it does not affect the parties anyway. However, the parties prefer to return whatever they have got as gifts. The order is not fixed. The families may decide to change the order of observing the customs as for their convenience. Traditionally, in Pakistani and Indian marriage cultures, only unmarried women apply Mehndi and turmeric pastes to brides. The Mehndi is also applied to grooms hands. After this ceremony the bride is not allowed to leave her house until the wedding takes place. She can go to beauty parlor on the wedding day along with women of her family. Conclusion The aim of such changes is to help in creating a strong, lasting and satisfying marriages through the reformation, development or the changes in the policies and the cultural. These changes are also relates with the marriage preparation to engaged couples and marriage enrichment and also reconciliation to married couples. They also help with step-family formation and success. Which means to say that these changes are with regard to the public policy and interest. Also for the welfare of family community and interests. More rigorous testing of community marriage initiatives, will require improvement in the quality, completeness, and consistency of data. In addition, it will be necessary t

Monday, January 20, 2020

Skateboard Heaven :: Personal Narrative Essays

Skateboard Heaven      Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   I come around the corner, and a smile comes across my face.   I love it when there isn't a crowd.   Only two other people braved the chill, and had the will, to get up this early.   Upon arrival, my view is enhanced. Though I've seen it enough to burn an image into my subconscious, each visit brings new wonder.   I climb onto the lower platform, and quickly scale the small wall to the upper.   I nod at the other already standing there.      Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   I've seen him before, but I don't need to know his name.   A silent friendship binds us that rarely needs words.   An occasional cheer or wince says more than the daily chat most are forced to endure.   The sound of the second person rolls softly in my ears. His image creeps into the corner of my eye while I inspect my shoes.   I scrub the soles back and forth on the pavement, out of habit, to insure a dry surface.   I don't bother to watch him.   I can hear him rolling smoothly down low.   His slow, relaxed warm up run tells me he probably arrived short time ago.   He makes his way up the back wall and his wheels go silent.   The other one puts his foot on his tail and effortlessly rolls his truck over the coping.   I watch him quickly drop away and coast to the hip.   He glides past it, and I start to notice the entire view before me as he blends into a larger picture.      Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   I see grey.   Every shade of grey, in all its variety blends and curves from the lightest near whites, to a deepness rivaling black. The darkness overhead   drones with the sound of a thousand automobile tires humming on the top of the bridge.   Though designed for another purpose, it serves well as protection from the rain and weather.   The sun and light, as well as the wind, come from the sides.   The wind blows softly this morn, yet it nips at   exposed skin.   I know I will soon appreciate its soothing aspects as I warm up, so I try not to be bitter about it chilling my already cool body.      Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   I hear the familiar pop of an ollie and my eyes automatically track

Saturday, January 11, 2020

Organic vs. industrial food Essay

Organic foods, although stereotypically known for having a bland taste or having no taste have been shown to improve one’s quality of life be decreasing some health risk such as cancer or heart disease. If you haven’t realized it, organic fruits and vegetables taste better, and the flavor is crispier. The health consequences of genetically modified food, when examined closely, will convince you to change your eating habits. The shelf life of food depends on four main factors: formulation, processing, packaging and storage. Change any one of these conditions and you can change the shelf life for better or worse. Shelf life has many attributes: bacterial control, color stability, yeast and mold inhibition, flavor stability, textural stability and aroma stability. The appearance of shelf-life problems can be wide, as well, including oxidative browning, oxidation of flavor compounds, or liquescence. To increase the shelf life of more unstable foods, such as low-sugar jam, low-salt condiments, low-oil salad dressings, prepared fresh produce and deli meats, food companies may take steps to reduce bacterial load from ingredients before they process the final food. To grow, thrive and survive, microbes need a friendly environment; this usually includes moisture. Lowering moisture creates a hostile environment for bacteria by decreasing the available medium for them to grow in. There are a number of new ingredients to help regulate water activity in foods with a reduced fat phase. â€Å" Generally, the water activity of a minimally processed food needs to be about 0. 07 or lower, water has an a W rating of 1. 00, and most products preserved with sugar, measure about 0. 07, with the excess water bound so that bacteria are under osmotic pressure too great to survive(Katz, February 4, 2006). † Whenever you buy food, you have decision to make: Healthy or cheap, organic or industrial. If organic food was not so expensive, that decision would be easy, everybody would buy organic food, for a healthier body. Unfortunately not everybody can afford it, making it look like healthy food is becoming a luxury good. In the rush to produce more and more food for the people on this planet, chemicals came into play. Farmers begin by trying to sell the highest percentage of their crop and therefore often use pesticides, gen-manipulated corn, chemicals etc. The farmer’s investment in pesticides, hormones, and chemicals tends to pays off, earning more, their fruits look better and costumers are happy with huge pest fee fruits and vegetables. When a farmer says no to chemicals, he runs the risk of losing a harvest because of pests. The only way to compensate the cost is a higher price for organic food. You can’t ask everybody to pay higher prices, and a lot of people would starve to death without the use of chemicals which protect harvests against pests. Every time you eat something, you consume pesticides, these substances are added in order to produce and sell more efficient. Fortunately there are strict rules for the use of chemicals. Organic foods are produced following practices described in the USDA National Organic Program (NOP), a marketing program with a certification process throughout the production and manufacturing chain. The NOP describes the practices that are required for labeling a product â€Å"organic,† but it does not address nutritional benefits or food safety issues. Even when you buy organic food, you are consuming these substances, but the bar is set at a different height and you are consuming less harmful substances that could be particularly hazards for high-risk groups such as pregnant women, infants, young children and farm worker households. Since organic food is not prepared using chemical fertilizers and pesticides, it does not contain any traces of these strong chemicals and might not affect the human body. People strongly believe that organic food tastes better than non-organic food. The prominent reason for this belief is that it is produced using organic means of production. Further organic food is often sold locally resulting in availability of fresh produce in the market. So how bad is industrial food? Let’s take a look; there are maximum residue limits on all pesticides and chemicals. The department of health determines how much of each substance is ok. Eating organic food lowers the risk of getting hit by a similar scenario, but it’s not a 100% guarantee (Are Organic Foods Better for You. 2010). However, getting seriously sick from cheap food is not that high of a risk as long as you read food labels you can eat cheap and healthy at the same time? If you are eating organic food only, you are still eating unhealthy foods. Almost everyone is aware that foods grown according to organic principles are free from over exposure to harmful pesticides, but that is only one small aspect. A larger part of organic agriculture is the health of the soil and the ecosystem in which crops are raised. Organic farmers know that healthy, live soils significantly benefit crops. Synthetic chemicals such as herbicides, pesticides, and/or fast acting inorganic fertilizers applied to or around crops interrupt or destroy the micro biotic activity in the soil. Organic farming reduces groundwater pollutants, decreases pesticides that can end up in your drinking glass; in some cities, pesticides in tap water have been measured at unsafe levels. The Farmer’s Market is a growers’ market, meaning everything in the market is homegrown, but Richard Bowie, an experienced organic grower is not convinced that all the food being sold is homegrown. â€Å"The market’s slogan ‘100% Homegrown makes us different’ is used as a gimmick, said Bowie† (Shreve, October 3, 2011). Vendors have been seen carrying produce and selling it to other vendors at the market bringing the term organically grown in to question and without certification, and but by law they cannot say they are a certified organically grown vendor. Most vendors cannot afford the certification process and want consumers to look past the term organic there for focus on the soil used or nutrients used. Almost everyone is aware that foods grown according to organic principles are free from over exposure to harmful pesticides, but that is only one small aspect. A larger part of organic agriculture is the health of the soil and the ecosystem in which crops are raised. Organic farmers know that healthy, live soils significantly benefit crops. Synthetic chemicals such as herbicides, pesticides, and/or fast acting inorganic fertilizers applied to or around crops interrupt or destroy the micro biotic activity in the soil. Organic farming reduces groundwater pollutants, decreases pesticides that can end up in your drinking glass; in some cities, pesticides in tap water have been measured at unsafe levels. We should choose farming methods that truly address our real concerns safety and sustainability, not simply methods that satisfy an arbitrary marketing label. To whatever extent these practices include methods that are permitted under organic rules. But there’s never a case when a safe, more efficient, and sustainable modern technology that feeds more people worldwide should be disallowed for no logical reason. Eating â€Å"organic† alone doesn’t guarantee 100 percent healthy . The truth is that most Americans eat so badly that we get most of our calories from soft drinks, more than we do from vegetables; the top food group by caloric intake is â€Å"sweets†; and one-third of nation’s adults are now obese. It’s not unimportant, but it’s not the primary issue in the way Americans eat. To eat well, says means avoiding â€Å"edible food-like substances† and sticking to real ingredients, increasingly from the plant kingdom. There’s plenty of evidence that both a person’s health as well as the environment’s will improve with a simple shift in eating habits away from animal products and highly processed foods to plant products and what might be called â€Å"real food. † From these changes, Americans would reduce the amount of land, water and chemicals used to produce the food we eat, as well as the incidence of lifestyle diseases linked to unhealthy diets and greenhouse gases from industrial meat production. And the food would not necessarily have to be organic, all it takes is paying attention to what you eat and read your labels more closely. Participation on our part to be more aware of what we buy and to raise our voices, if need be. We can let our opinions be known even in the simplest ways. A good example is when we shop, if there is no substitute for the product we need, let the store owners know, they will surely change their products. Organic food is better as it uses natural farming techniques. It is similar to preferring natural remedies when suffering from a disease as compared to eating chemical antibiotics. So, the question of organic foods vs non organic foods; which is better, is clearly answered. Organic food surpasses the conventionally produced foods. References Katz, F. (Febuary 4, 2006). Formulating for increased shelf life. Retrieved November 22, 2011, from http://www. foodprocessing. com/articles/2006/039. html Are Organic Foods Better For You?. Retrieved November 19, 2011, from http://preventdisease. com/home/tips61. shtml Shreve, S. (October 3, 2011). Does organically grown produce really matter?. Retrieved November 21, 2011, from.

Friday, January 3, 2020

Literary Analysis `` Invisible Man `` Essay - 1905 Words

William Edward Burghardt W. E. B. Du Bois was an American sociologist, historian, civil rights activist, Pan-Africanist, author, and editor and he explored a societal idea that other authors, poets, and short story writers adapted in their pieces of writings as well. The theories of Du Bois’ â€Å"Double Consciousness† made its way into Ralph Ellison s novel Invisible Man, and Langston Hughes series of poems. All of these authors wrote about Double Consciousness in there own way but never changed the real meaning of it being, it describes the individual sensation of feeling as though your identity is divided into several parts, making it difficult or impossible to have one unified identity. Double Consciousness, had two perceptions that anyone could take either way. The first being, the presentation of African-American as almost entirely deprived of their agency. Then, the second idea branching off of Double Consciousness was what Ellison adapted to his novel. One is no t just â€Å"African† or just â€Å"American† that certain black society lives as an â€Å"American† and a â€Å"Negro† but derives from all the wealth of human experience encompassing multiple layers of identity. Both views lead back to the ideas of identity in society and within a single person, which Ellison, and Wright challenged us as the readers to find in there pieces of work. Ralph Ellison’s novel, Invisible Man, took on the story of a black man in New York just before the infamous Civil Rights movement was going toShow MoreRelatedLiterary Analysis Of Invisible Man 1570 Words   |  7 PagesAddell November 16, 2015 Literary Analysis of Invisible Man The idea of double consciousness, termed by W.E.B. Du Bois, for African Americans deals with the notion that one’s self has duality in being black and American. It is the attempt to reconcile two cultures that make up the identity of black men and women. One can only see through the eyes of another. A veil exists in this idea, where one has limits in how he or she can see or be seen. This individual is invisible to the onlookers of theRead MoreLiterary Analysis Of Invisible Man 1877 Words   |  8 PagesTitle: Invisible Man Genre: Social Commentary Historical context: Year Published: 1952 Literary Period: Modernism Historical or Literary Connections: Invisible Man was written shortly after the Allied victory of World War II. The novel does not focus around the war at all, it focuses on the mass discrimination which took place all over America, especially in the deep south. Protagonist: The Narrator The narrator is a black man living in the 1930s, when racial prejudices are evident throughout AmericaRead MoreRalph Ellison’S Novel, Invisible Man Serves As A Cultural1408 Words   |  6 PagesRalph Ellison’s novel, Invisible Man serves as a cultural ethnography of the African American condition in the 1950s. Flooded with issues of signifyin(g), African American folklore, and trickster figures, Ellison’s main theme for the novel is for the narrator to find his own identity in a world defined by whiteness. Specifically, Ellison’s employment of the trickster, a figure that generally bends normal rules and conventional behavior, acts as a cultural â€Å"gift-bearer† that is essential to the readingRead MoreInvisible Man by Ralph Ellison Essay1403 Words   |  6 Pages nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;In Ralph Ellison’s novel, Invisible Man, the narrator is a young, African-American male who believes that he is invisible. Throughout the novel, he spends a great amount of time and effort trying to figure out his identity and find a way to make himself visible in society. One of the narrator’s main attempts brings him to join an organization known as the Brotherhood, where he is able to utilize his talent for public speaking as an advocate for the Brotherhood and allRead MoreThe Tone and Style of Ralph Ellisons Battle Royal Essay963 Words   |  4 PagesA short analysis of the major theme found in Ellison’s Battle Royal, supported by a literary criticism dealing with the tone and style of the story. Introduction: Ralph Ellison’s short story, Battle Royal, is mainly an account of the African American struggle for equality and identity. The narrator of the story is an above average youth of the African American community [Goldstein-Shirlet, 1999]. He is given an opportunity to give a speech to some of the more prestigious white individuals. HisRead MoreThe Struggle for Equality and Identity in Ralph Ellisons Battle Royal915 Words   |  4 Pagesthe story. Ellison highlights the vastness of the problems faced by the African American community to claim themselves. This is done by the extreme nature of the incidents described in the Battle Royal. A short analysis of the major theme found in Ellison’s Battle Royal, supported by a literary criticism dealing with the tone and style of the story. At first, the boys are taken to a room where a nude woman is dancing. When the boys turn their heads away, they are yelled at for not looking. The toneRead MoreAnalysis of The Wonders of the Invisible World891 Words   |  4 Pagesï » ¿ Analysis of The Wonders of the Invisible World In this primary document, Cotton Mather, a Puritan theologian, writes about his fears of losing the entire country to the devil and his minions as the Christian religion, in his mind, is being slowly eradicated from the entire country due to witchcraft. In 1693 Cotton Mather wrote a literary piece called The Wonders of the Invisible World a year after questionable events in defense of the persecutions of those accused and convicted in Salem forRead MoreThe Point of View of Battle Royal by Ralph Ellison Essay867 Words   |  4 Pagesbecame a state. After completing the lengthy research of this man and his works I found that Ellison once had considered becoming a classical music composer after getting the idea from a nineteenth century opera composer named Richard Wagner. The reading of â€Å"Battle Royal from â€Å"Literature An Introduction to reading and writing† by Edgar V. Roberts and Robert Zweig Tenth Edition was actually the first chapter of Ellison’s novel â €Å"The Invisible Man.† Throughout his life those trials and tribulationsRead MoreRalf Ellisons The Invisible Man Essay1927 Words   |  8 PagesAt the time the Invisible Man was published segregation was in full force in many parts of America, making certain scenes of the novel obscene and outlandish (Holland 34). To his peers Ellison was a thinker as well as writer he had the capability of repairing automobiles and electronic devices; â€Å"He had a particular passion for high quality audio equipment, and found a hobby in building and customizing stereo systems.† (LitCharts 3) After writing the Invisible Man Ellison found it to be an arduousRead MoreUsing Psychoanalysis to Understand Human Behavior Essay4081 Words   |  17 Pagesas an important tool for understanding human nature. Furthermore, psychoanalytic criticism of authors, characters, and readers has a place in literary criticism that is as important as the place of psychoanalysis in society. This is because of the mimetic nature of mu ch of modern literature. In fact, the psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan wrote, If psycho-analysis is to be constituted as the science of the unconscious, one must set out from the notion that the unconscious is structured like a language,(1)