Thursday, December 26, 2019
Defunded Parenthood Congress has sparked a debate as to whether or not the government should continue funding Planned Parenthood. Too many people are uneducated about the many services Planned Parenthood offers to those who would not be able to afford it otherwise. The debate began after a heavily edited video was released accusing Planned Parenthood of selling fetal organs for a profit. The selling of any body part is against federal law. CNN released an article confirming to the public that it was indeed an edited video by inputting the original and comparing it to the altered one. Planned Parenthood does donate tissue, but only for scientific research, and solely acquires reimbursement for the expenses. Planned Parenthood is a nonprofit organization. There is a common misconception that Planned Parenthood is a center for abortions, and thatÃ¢â¬â¢s it. Only three percent of Planned ParenthoodÃ¢â¬â¢s services relate to abortions. Planned Parenthood receives $500 million in feder al funding and it is illegal to spend any of that money on abortion services. Planned Parenthood provides reproductive health care, and vital sex information to teens, woman, and men nationwide. Planned Parenthood is the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s largest provider of sex education. It offers contraception (birth control, condoms), STD testings and treatment, health care information, all for free or an affordable price, and is easy to access. If the government decides to defund the organization entirely, it would primarilyShow MoreRelatedShould The Federal Government Continue Funding Planned Parenthood?1501 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesShould the Federal Government continue funding Planned Parenthood? Planned Parenthood is an organization that has been around since at least 1921. Recently, it has been in the limelight due to the on-going Presidential debates leading up to the 2016 election. It appears that the Republicans want to take away all federal funding to shut down the clinics where as the democrats believe that the republicans are misguided in their claims. The Ã¢â¬Å"Planned Parenthood Federation of AmericaÃ¢â¬ is a non profitRead MoreShould The Government Defund Planned Parenthood?1693 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesShould the Government Defund Planned Parenthood? About a century ago, a small birth-control clinic was opened by Margaret Sanger in Brooklyn, New York. Women and families travelled to this clinic to learn about contraceptives and the perils of self-administered abortions. This was unheard of at the time, to teach a woman how to stop pregnancy in a world where the highest aspiration of a woman was supposed to become a mother. However, very soon after this clinic opened, Sanger was put incarceratedRead MorePlanned Parenthood1299 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesPlanned Parenthood Planned Parenthood federation of America (PPFA), better known as Planned Parenthood, is a non-profit organization that provides healthcare and family planning services. Planned Parenthood is the nations leading sexual and reproductive health care provider and advocate (Planned). Planned Parenthood receives federal funding to help practice the services they provide, but some groups believe that funding this organization is morally wrong. Critics of Planned Parenthood say theRead MorePersuasive Essay On Planned Parenthood1216 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Planned Parenthood was founded on the revolutionary idea that women should have the information and care they need to live strong, healthy lives and fulfill their dreams Ã¢â¬â no ceilings, no limits (Planned Parenthood). With over 600 health centers, the people of Planned Parenthood have dedicated themselves to keep women informed, healthy, and educated in sexual education, and sexual health (Planned Parenthood). While all seemingly good intentions, Planned Parenthood has been A topic of controversyRead MoreThe Supreme Court Case Roe V. Wade1417 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesthen, 23 cases on womenÃ¢â¬â¢s reproductive rights have been through the Supreme Court, five of which have directly involved Planned Parenthood as the petitioner or respondent. Each of these has posed some threat to Planned ParenthoodÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to provide abortion and have had the potential to deal a serious blow to womenÃ¢â¬â¢s reproductive rights as whole. Nonetheless, Planned Parenthood has persevered and retained their ability to provide a full range of reproductive services to women. However, the politicalRead MoreExamining the Issue of Planned Parenthood between Republicans and Democrats959 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesnearly shut down because the Democrats and Republicans were struggling to agree upon, among other issues, what to do with Planned Parenthood. The Republicans wanted to stop federal funding for Planned Parenthood, which clearly shows Ã¢â¬Å"that they simply donÃ¢â¬â¢t care about the health and safety of American women (Planned Parenthood).Ã¢â¬ The Democrats strongly support Planned Parenthood and were not willing to accept the RepublicanÃ¢â¬â¢s proposal. However, the Republicans did not care whether a shut down couldRead MoreParenthood Is A Health Care Provider1730 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesPlanned Parenthood is a health care provider that focuses on supplying women and men of all ages and backgrounds with health care and sex education. This includes, but is not limited to, contraception, testing and treatment for sexually transmitted diseases, screenings for cancers, sexual education courses, and, most notably, abortions. Planned Parenthood finds itself at the center of much controversy specifically for its role in terminating pregnancies, as well as providing students with sex educationRead MoreFunding Of Planned Parenthood And The Services1184 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"prosÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"argu ments forÃ¢â¬ that position? The topic I chose to research was the funding of Planned Parenthood, and the services they provide. One of the positions on this topic was to defund Planned Parenthood. The article, by Sarah Torre, Congress Should End Federal Funding to Planned Parenthood and Redirect It Toward Other Health Care Options discusses the idea that PP should not receive any government funding to its clinics. A main argument established by Torre is that the flow of federal taxRead MoreParenthood Is Affordable, The United States Department Of Health, Education, And Welfare1025 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesMany men and women in America donÃ¢â¬â¢t have insurance or simply cannot afford health care. Planned Parenthood does have professional doctors who specialized in many reproductive health services. Planned Parenthood is affordable, the program takes a patient whether they have insurance or not, not only that, they charge you by how much income you make. Low income Americans have access to these services too. Ã¢â ¬Å"The United States Department of Health, Education and Welfare, for example, created a federalRead MorePlanned Parenthood : Parenthood, Family Planning, And Reproductive Problems1020 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAs you may have heard, Planned Parenthood is what the government officials are talking about recently. The Republicans want to take away the government funding for Planned Parenthood. Planned Parenthood is an organization that does scientific research and offers advice on contraception, family planning, and reproductive problems. Currently, the government funds the organization with the tax payerÃ¢â¬â¢s dollars. (Planned Parenthood at a Glance, 2014.) I am going to explain the history of the problem,
Posted by Unknown at 4:39 PM
Wednesday, December 18, 2019
Food, in itself, is a social concept, a perception of an idea that is constructed through cultural and social practice. Food is constructed through cultural practice, defined by its particular usage and representation among particular ethnic and cultural groups. Therefore, foodÃ¢â¬â¢s significance is much more than simply satiating hunger. Take religious restrictions on pork, for example. What reason caused IslamÃ¢â¬â¢s belief in the pig as haram, considering it is eaten by the vast majority of the world? Simply put, why do Muslims avoid pork? This can be rationally analyzed, and is attributed to the climate and geographical limitations of foodways in the Middle East. However, as Islam spread throughout the world, the habitual action of avoidingÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Taking into consideration the stigmas and stereotypes such as Ã¢â¬Å"a woman Ã¢â¬ ¦ to evoke the idea of the kitchenÃ¢â¬ (Parasecoli, 288), food preparation and cooking has been a source of attention on h ow gender inequality, or more specifically, hegemonic masculinity, is reproduced in both the everyday home activities and in the professional realm of celebrity chefs and hosts. It must be noted that although food habits in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world are reflected in the development and expression of male masculinity, there is little to no attention towards how the male identity is affected by food preparation and food culture. The current state of knowledge and attention in scholarly articles remain, for the most part, on how masculine identity discourse is displayed through specific mediums such as food shows. This mock research paper attempts to address this hole using survey interviews. The research questions I ask are: Ã¢â¬Å"How does masculine identity influence food habits?Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"How have food habits affected participantsÃ¢â¬â¢ body image and masculine ideals?Ã¢â¬ State of Knowledge Throughout the history of mankind, food has always been connected with male identit y, especially in a male-dominated patriarchal society where Ã¢â¬Å"cooking in our society remain deeply linked to genderÃ¢â¬ (Swanson, 141). What one eats and how one is seen by society in regards to food habits affect male behaviour in their development and expression of identity. The current state of knowledge brings attention towards theShow MoreRelatedCorporate Social Responsibility : Ethical Responsibility1529 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesCorporate Social Responsibility: Should we, or should we not. Corporate Social Responsibility (C.S.R.) is a theory practiced in the business sphere since fifty years. It refers to the duty of business organizations to adopt certain activities that will benefit the society in some way. Charity, health-awareness campaigns are few examples that a business undertakes to fulfil its objectives of C.S.R. According to this ideal, it is important for various corporations today to undertake such social activitiesRead MoreMultinational Companies : The New Standards, Quality Goods, And Low Prices870 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages1. Introduction 1.1 Background Going global has become an obvious choice for multinational companies. But spreading across the globe is not a secret to success or revenue generation, on itself. The opportunities in international markets have shown significant growth and potential for multinational companies. The capital, technology and skills of multinational companies invested in the local markets have created a good economic situation in the host countries. The developing countries have benefittedRead More Perception of McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s Essay examples940 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesPerception of McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s has expanded globally into 31,000 worldwide outlets and employed more than 1.5 million people in more than 119 countries (Kulkarni, Lassar, Sridhar Venkitachalam, 2009). Nevertheless, McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s always faces negative perception and commonly related in serving unhealthy and junk foods amongst its customers around the world (Currie, Dellavigna, Moretti, Pathania, 2009). It is not only the negative perception of public, but McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s have been attacked andRead MoreThe Computational Theory Of Mind1657 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagessophisticated chips and with billion of neurons, you ended up with one powerful computational device, which is brain. Brain is one hunk of matter that is intelligent things that allows human beings to have cognitive equipment to processes of human perception, problem solving, and decision making. The Ã¢â¬Å"demonsÃ¢â¬ is a system that contains a memory and reflexes. These demons are triggered by information and connected to sense. The mind is a product of natural selection and in that sense, the mind is ourRead MoreMarketing Strategy For Green Marketing915 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesaddition, social marketing has become an essential consideration in a marketing perspective, as consumers are increasingly concerned about the environment, they tend to favor green brands and the environmental practices of the firm. Therefore, creating green marketing and branding is very significant for the firm to increase its visibility in green operations, which can be done by the followings: Ã¢â" Set objectives goals The firm could set its goal based on the Ã¢â¬ËTriple bottom linesÃ¢â¬â¢ concept, which composedRead MoreSurrealism and Film Essay1653 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesFirst World War. Many French artists were displaced during the war, and embraced ideals that spoke to their dissatisfaction with the results of rationalism, in their eyes a cause of the war itself (http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-surrealism.htm). These artists called themselves Ã¢â¬Å"DadaistsÃ¢â¬ and believed in the concept of Ã¢â¬Å"Anti-artÃ¢â¬ , a rejection of previous values tied to rational or bourgeoisie ideals. Upon their return to Paris after the war these artists brought the idea of anti-art and began expressingRead MoreWhat Was Technology Before The Information Era?998 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesand manufacturing, the idea of technology is considered to be a flexible and progressive term that portrays itself to have a variety of purposes relates to everything mankind has created. By revealing the semantic changes in the connotation of the word technology and providing a chronological sequence of related conceptions, we can acknowledge how current technology changes our perception of the term. From the first usage of the term Ã¢â¬Å"technology,Ã¢â¬ it has always been related to the constructing orRead MoreExamples Of Companies Marketing Activities1176 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesexamples of companies marketing activities adapted to fit different countries/ analyse/ no individual country specific When going global, and in order to succeed in international business, understanding consumer behaviours based on their values and perception of other countries is key for implementing a proper winning marketing strategy. Cultural dimensions help managers and multinational companies respond effectively and positively to values and behaviours that shape a given nation and that might beRead MoreCustomer Service Coming Right Up : A Thematic Analysis On Factors That Influence Customer Satisfaction1533 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagestake-out, dine-in, or fast food each of these are some sort of restaurant. All paying customers have expectations when going to a restaurant. There are factors that are different from person to person but some trends may exist. Some factors in a restaurant that can affect the customer satisfaction could be the pricing, service by the employee or server, food quality, and atmosphere of the restaurant. Service quality is a complex, indescribable, subjective and intellect ual concept, which means differentRead MoreInfluences consumer behavior1461 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesSo Vinamilk made products to meet the needs of all objects, such as milk for children, adult milk, milk for mothers, milk for those who are slimming, ... 2. Perception: People have perception are always ready for action. The problem is how they will act in the fact also influenced by their perception about the situation at that time. Perception is not only dependent on the physical factors but also depends on the relationship of the factors that for ambient conditions and the individual within it.
Posted by Unknown at 12:28 PM
Tuesday, December 10, 2019
Question: Discuss about the Business Operations and Improving Customer Services OZ Supermarket . Answer: The OZ Supermarket retail market was opened recently. They are offering various types of product, such as family products, stationary products and non-perishable items (Turolla, 2016). They have tried to set up alternative methods for the customers to buy and purchase the products. The authorities at the supermarket have identified that it is very irritating and time consuming for the customers to stand in queues for billing procedure of their purchases at the supermarket. In addition to this the shopping process also becomes very complex and problematic. Hence, the supermarket has introduced this new method of billing system for their customers. This new method would make the customer happy and satisfied and would encourage them to opt for the supermarket more often. In the new procedure of the billing system the supermarket decided to abolish the system of making the payment via cash (Ngu Scott, 2015). They tried to opt for cashless procedures. In addition to this the supermarket has also tried to introduce the automatic billing system. The authorities have considered using the espouse Pay Wave Technology for the implementing the system they are intending to use for the billing purpose in the future. This system would allow the buyers to simply walk into the store grab their products and the billing would be done automatically. This new concept would change the idea of the billing system in the entire retail chain business in the world. In the process that is to be followed in the supermarket the shopper can simply walk into the market complex and take an item and simply put it in their trolley. Now, the trolley that are present in the supermarket have been equipped with the RFID or the Radio Frequency Identification system (Yang et al., 2014). The RFID does the labeling and tagging procedure of the products. For the labeling procedure of the items of the market a chip is used which is installed in the products. These chips would contain all the details of the products such as, the name of the product, the product id, the price of the product and the status of the product. In addition to this, a radio wire is placed with the tag of the products. The products can be traced with the help of the chips that is placed in them. In addition to this the chips that are fitted in the trolley can detect the chips that are installed in the products. Thus when an item is kept in the trolley the chip in the trolley detects the item and register it in the bill of the person that is buying the product (Wang et al. 2014). In this process the total bill is summed upped for the buyer as the buyer purchases more products. The total sum is deducted from the balance of the buyer when the buyer exits the shopping complex. In addition to this the details that are tracked by the chip are updated instantly in the company database. And also, if the customer do not require the item anymore, then they can place it back to the place they took it from and the details of the item would be removed from the account of the customer. In addition to this, the customer is provided with the PayWave card. As soon as the customer reaches the exit doors with the products the customer is billed for the products, and the bill is deducted from the balance of the customer. The system also has methods in the system to stop the people from illegal activities and prohibit them from stealing or procuring the items without paying the money (Amendola et al., 2014). The system has an alert system which goes off if the bill of the customer exceeds the balance of the customer. However the system has proper methods to tackle the situation. In case the customer does not have the proper amount of balance in the card with which he wants to buy a product, the customer can simply go to the front desk and refill the balance in the card. In addition to this if any customer does not have a Paywave card enrolled to his name, then he would be provided with a temporary card from the supermarket in which the customer can recharge it with cash and purchase the products of his needs. In case the customer has extra balance in his card it would kept I accounts and carried forward for his next visit. In addition to this the supermarket also has some policies for the parking system in the market (Ellickson, 2013). For aiding the financial side of the business, these policies have been adopted by the authorities. In the peak season the supermarket charges high rate of parking fee from the customers, while in the lean seasons the parking rates are lowered significantly. In addition to this the parking charges for the disabled and the handicapped are waived off. Recommendations Although the supermarket has some excellent operational tactics in place, but some recommendations are provided for the company. Enhanced Billing system: Firstly, in addition to the prepaid policy the super market has in place they can also have some credit policy in place for the Paywave card (Rothman Zimmer, 2013). It will allow the customers to purchase items even if do not have and a card or cash with them in the moment of emergency. This would allow the supermarket to credit them the balance and charge them later on when they refill the balance in their card. This would allow the supermarket to maintain proper business relationship with the customers and also enhance the perspective of their business. Staff satisfaction: Secondly, if the supermarket adopts these policies for implementing the operational changes in the business a large number of staffs would lose their jobs (Bornemann-Shephered, 2015). Hence, supermarket should look to assign the staffs in some different positions or activities in the Supermarket. This would increase the efficiency of the business of the supermarket and also keep the staffs satisfied. Monitoring: Thirdly, it should be seen that all the detection components are used are working properly and are to be kept under proper monitoring procedure (Crabtree, Zappala Tavner, 2014). This would maintain the efficiency of the business. The planned changes that are thought of are very apt and suitable for the supermarket. It has increased the ease of access for the customers of the supermarket. This is because no kind of business can survive in the market with only the financial efficiency, they also require the customer satisfaction that will increase the reputation of the company. The authorities of the supermarket had taken note of this fact and looked into the matter with great eagerness and developed a plan for improving the billing system of the supermarket. As a result of this the customers can easily come into the supermarket and complete their shopping very easily without the fear of standing in the long queues for the billing of the products that they had purchased. In addition to this the supermarket also can implement a feedback system in place where they would receive the feedback from the customers after the purchase. This system would help the supermarket to rectify the areas where the customers feel that, there are issues that they need to solve to make the system more efficient. The supermarket can take certain measures to implement this procedure: Product and Service rating System. In this the supermarket can take feedback from the customers about their product and the servicers (Ghobadian et al., 2016). In this system the customers should have an option about providing rating for the service they receive at the supermarket. In addition to this they should also have a product rating system in place so that they can provide the product rating after the use. The customers of the supermarket are to provide the service rating as soon as they exit the supermarket and provide the product rating only after they use the products. The system should calculate the overall ratings of any type of product and calculate and post the result so that they would be helpful for both the customers and the supermarket authorities. It would act as a guideline for both the customers and the experts in that audit with the product reports. Hence, it would increase the overall product efficiency for the supermarket. Online Portal for the customer feedback. The authorities should look and implement a customer feedback system for the supermarket where the customer can provide the ratings and the feedback regarding the services and the product of the supermarket (Tanpure, Shidankar Joshi, 2013). The portal should be online and active 24/7. In this portal the customers should also be able post queries and concern regarding the service and the products of the supermarket. This would help the customers to communicate with the supermarket officials more easily. And hence, a healthy communication relationship would be maintained in between the customers and the supermarket. This would be increasing the overall customer satisfaction towards the supermarket. Implementation of website for the company and provision of customer services in it. The company should implement a website in which the details of the company are provided for the customers to gain information from it (Cappel Huang, 2014). The information such as the operational activities of the supermarket, the list of working days or the days when the company would be closed. In addition to this the website would also be post the advertisement for the supermarket as of the products and the new facilities that the supermarket are providing. The advertisement about the products could be about the sale of the products or introduction of newer products into the supermarket. In addition this the time of the seasonal sales can also be notified to the customers. In order to perform this activities the customers would require to create an account of themselves in the website. The account would provide information about the customers on the website. There can various types of information such as, information about the PayWave card, which are the balance in the card, the validity of the card. In addition to this the customer should also be provided the details about the history of the purchases that they have made from the supermarket and also the details about the exchange of the products if they have made any. In addition to this the website of the supermarket should also have an of the customer service that would provide the customers to contact the customer care executives at moment of time clear out their doubts about any kind of the operations of the supermarket. As a result the overall reputation of the supermarket would be enhanced efficiently. Customer Support System within the Supermarket In addition to all the online services that customer are to be provided with, the customer support system inside the supermarket should also be implemented (Jaakkola Alexander, 2014). There should be implementation of customer service exclusive for the customers who purchase the products in addition to the existing customer services desk. These desk would have staffs who would help the customers with the products that they would like to exchange and also make the customers understand the exchange policies of the supermarket very aptly. The staffs would concerned with the exchange methods of the products. They should properly check the items and note the defects in the items and also the customer grievances that are related to the items. In addition to this they should see to it that the customers are provided with a replaced product of same specifications. In addition if any customer wants to return the products and would want of procure the price of the product, then the staffs sho uld also act to the situation. In this they should make the customers understand the product return policy of the supermarket aptly and perform the process of returning the product efficiently. In addition to this section of the supermarket should also contain a drop box system, in case a customer wants to provide reviews for the product and the services anonymously and do not want to reveal their identity. Hence, this would enhance the overall relationship with the customers for the supermarket. References Turolla, S. (2016). Spatial competition in the French supermarket industry.Annals of Economics and Statistics/Annales d'conomie et de Statistique, (121-122), 213-259. Yang, L., Chen, Y., Li, X. Y., Xiao, C., Li, M., Liu, Y. (2014, September). Tagoram: Real-time tracking of mobile RFID tags to high precision using COTS devices. InProceedings of the 20th annual international conference on Mobile computing and networking(pp. 237-248). ACM. Wang, L., Da Xu, L., Bi, Z., Xu, Y. (2014). Data cleaning for RFID and WSN integration.IEEE transactions on industrial informatics,10(1), 408-418. Amendola, S., Lodato, R., Manzari, S., Occhiuzzi, C., Marrocco, G. (2014). RFID technology for IoT-based personal healthcare in smart spaces.IEEE Internet of Things Journal,1(2), 144-152. Ellickson, P. B. (2013). Supermarkets as a natural oligopoly.Economic Inquiry,51(2), 1142-1154. Rothman, M. M., Zimmer, V. (2013).U.S. Patent No. 8,561,138. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. Bornemann-Shepherd, M., Le-Lazar, J., Makic, M. B. F., DeVine, D., McDevitt, K., Paul, M. (2015). Caring for inpatient boarders in the emergency department: improving safety and patient and staff satisfaction.Journal of Emergency Nursing,41(1), 23-29. Crabtree, C. J., Zappal, D., Tavner, P. J. (2014). Survey of commercially available condition monitoring systems for wind turbines. Ghobadian, A., Stainer, A., Liu, J., Kiss, T. (2016). A computerised vendor rating system. InDevelopments in Logistics and Supply Chain Management(pp. 103-112). Palgrave Macmillan UK. Tanpure, S. S., Shidankar, P. R., Joshi, M. M. (2013). Automated food ordering system with real-time customer feedback.International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Software Engineering,3(2). Cappel, J. J., Huang, Z. (2014). THE EFFECT OF PREDICTOR VARIABLES ON SELECTED WEBSITE NAVIGATION AIDS.ASBBS Proceedings,21(1), 159. Jaakkola, E., Alexander, M. (2014). The role of customer engagement behavior in value co-creation: a service system perspective.Journal of Service Research,17(3), 247-261. Bertazzi, L., Bosco, A., Guerriero, F., Lagana, D. (2013). A stochastic inventory routing problem with stock-out.Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies,27, 89-107. Jarvis, J. E. (2016).Strategies for improving first-line supervisor problem-solving abilities in the retail supermarket industry(Doctoral dissertation, Walden University). Gmez-Lobo, A., Jimnez, J. L., Perdiguero, J. (2015). The entry of a hard discount supermarket: price effects/La entrada de un supermercado de descuento duro: efecto sobre precios.Investigaciones Regionales, (31), 143. Saleheen, F., Miraz, M. H., Habib, M. M., Hanafi, Z. (2014). Challenges of Warehouse Operations: A Case Study in Retail Supermarket.International Journal of Supply Chain Management,3(4). Ngu, M., Scott, C. (2015, April). How secure are contactless payment systems. InRSA Conference, San Francisco, USA.
Posted by Unknown at 9:10 AM
Monday, December 2, 2019
Ups At 12:01 a.m. August 04,1997, 185,000 members of the International Brotherhood of Teamsters, one of the largest and historically most powerful unions in the U.S., struck against the United Parcel Service, the company which ships 80 percent of all packages in the country. It was the first nationwide strike in the 90-year history of UPS, and involves more workers than any strike in this decade. It's Our Contract, We'll Fight for It said Teamster signs. It's more than just a contract dispute, and what's needed is a fight to win this key labor battle. We're striking for every worker in America, said a picketing UPS driver in Atlanta. He's right, and then some. All working people, minorities, immigrants and every other oppressed sector in this country have a stake in this struggle. We must prepare now to come out and defend the UPS strikers against the blows that the bosses and their government are already preparing. A 21-year UPS driver picketing outside the UPS Metro facility at 43rd Street in Manhattan told The Internationalist: this is a standoff between labor and management--here it's UPS, but it's almost everywhere. The management at UPS looks at us with contempt. Deep-seated resentment against the highhanded UPS bosses and the sheer power of the unionized work force make this a chance to turn the tide of the more than two decades of defeats that the unions have suffered. UPS was founded in 1907 by a 19-year-old Seattle teenager who employed a team of boys to deliver luggage, parcels, and store purchases, UPS matched company growth with innovation. The company pioneered the idea of consolidated delivery, which streamlines performance by combining packages addressed to the same neighborhoods. UPS introduced its service to the general public after World War II, and had its national network in place by 1975. Its international network was set up soon after. In 1988, UPS received approval to operate as an independent airline, and it is currently the nation's ninth-largest, even offering weekend charter flights. Package delivery for retail stores became the company's focus, and in 1913 Jim merged with a competitor, Evert (Mac) McCabe, and the American Messenger Company changed its name to Merchants Parcel Delivery. Charles W. (Charlie) Soderstrom joined the firm and helped manage the company's growing fleet of delivery vehicles. During this period, the company also pioneered the concept of consolidated delivery, combining packages addressed to a certain neighborhood onto one delivery vehicle. The company extended operations to Oakland, California, and later to Los Angeles. In 1919, the name United Parcel Service was adopted. United because shipments were consolidated, and Service because, as Charlie Soderstrom observed, Service is all we have to offer. In 1929, the company opened United Air Express, offering package delivery via airplane to major West Coast cities and as far inland as El Paso, Texas. All UPS vehicles were painted the now-familiar Pullman railroad brown color. By the 1930s, UPS provided delivery services in all major West Coast cities, with a consolidated delivery service in the New York City area. The first mechanical system for package sorting was developed, and a 180-foot-long conveyor belt was installed in Los Angeles. By the early 1950s it was clear that contract service to retail stores was limited and UPS managers began looking for new opportunities. They decided to expand their services by acquiring common carrier rights to deliver packages between all addresses, for any customer, private or commercial. This decision placed UPS in direct competition with the U.S. Postal Service. In 1953, UPS resumed air service, offering two-day service to major cities on the East and West coasts. The service, called UPS Blue Label Air, grew and in 1978 the service was available in every state, including Alaska and Hawaii. To ensure dependability during the time of federal deregulation of airlines, UPS began to assemble its own jet cargo fleet, the largest in the industry. With growing demand for faster service, UPS entered the overnight air delivery business, and, by 1985, UPS Next Day Air service was available in 48 states and Puerto Rico. Alaska and Hawaii were added later. UPS entered a new era with international air package and document service, linking the U.S. and six European nations. In 1988 UPS received authorization from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to operate its own aircraft, thus officially becoming an airline. UPS Airlines was the fastest-growing airline in FAA history, formed in little more than one year with all the necessary technology and support systems. In 1990, UPS introduced scheduled service to Asia
Posted by Unknown at 8:52 PM
Wednesday, November 27, 2019
Introduction Cisco Systems, Inc. is the worldwide leader in networking for the Internet. Cisco's Internet Protocol-based (IP) networking solutions are the foundation of the Internet and most corporate, education, and government networks around the world. Cisco is famous for its routers and switches that link networks and power the Internet. It also makes network access servers and management software. Although the company is very young, it has achieved an enormous growth in the last decade. The computer networking industry is an extremely fast paced business. Technology is constantly evolving, forcing companies to come up with more innovative products. The customers are well informed about the market and very demanding. They can easily switch from Cisco to one of the numerous competitors. The competition is very tough with more companies moving into the networking industry. However, the rewards are far greater than risks: in 1998, Cisco had net income of more than $1 billion and was growing at 3 1% rate. The success of the company was due to the groundbreaking research and development, exceptional marketing and excellent staffing. Identified Relevance of Innovation Perhaps the most important strength Cisco has is the Globally Networked Business. This is a mixture of programs that permits the company to converse online with their stakeholders. At any time, employees, partners, customers, and suppliers are able to retrieve online information. In 1997, the company was able to avoid spending $250 million due to the Globally Networked Business application. This strength could be the basis of an ongoing competitive advantage if the company could develop a way to construct the process for current and prospective clients. The Globally Networked Business has the capability of giving Cisco a sustainable competitive advantage in the industry. To stay on top, Cisco must constantly develop and improve its products and services. The major ... Free Essays on Team Company Free Essays on Team Company Introduction Cisco Systems, Inc. is the worldwide leader in networking for the Internet. Cisco's Internet Protocol-based (IP) networking solutions are the foundation of the Internet and most corporate, education, and government networks around the world. Cisco is famous for its routers and switches that link networks and power the Internet. It also makes network access servers and management software. Although the company is very young, it has achieved an enormous growth in the last decade. The computer networking industry is an extremely fast paced business. Technology is constantly evolving, forcing companies to come up with more innovative products. The customers are well informed about the market and very demanding. They can easily switch from Cisco to one of the numerous competitors. The competition is very tough with more companies moving into the networking industry. However, the rewards are far greater than risks: in 1998, Cisco had net income of more than $1 billion and was growing at 3 1% rate. The success of the company was due to the groundbreaking research and development, exceptional marketing and excellent staffing. Identified Relevance of Innovation Perhaps the most important strength Cisco has is the Globally Networked Business. This is a mixture of programs that permits the company to converse online with their stakeholders. At any time, employees, partners, customers, and suppliers are able to retrieve online information. In 1997, the company was able to avoid spending $250 million due to the Globally Networked Business application. This strength could be the basis of an ongoing competitive advantage if the company could develop a way to construct the process for current and prospective clients. The Globally Networked Business has the capability of giving Cisco a sustainable competitive advantage in the industry. To stay on top, Cisco must constantly develop and improve its products and services. The major ...
Posted by Unknown at 7:06 AM
Saturday, November 23, 2019
A Quiz on Treatment of 75 Compound Words A Quiz on Treatment of 75 Compound Words A Quiz on Treatment of 75 Compound Words By Mark Nichol Open, hyphenated, or closed? Usage guides, dictionaries, and style manuals may differ in their treatment of the following words, so thereÃ¢â¬â¢s not necessarily one right answer except for the purposes of this exercise: Merriam-WebsterÃ¢â¬â¢s Collegiate Dictionary. All terms in this list are treated as open compounds. Which ones should be left as is, and which should be hyphenated or closed, and in which usages? The correct forms according to Merriam-Webster are listed at the bottom of the page. 1. Air borne 2. Anti social 3. Audio visual 4. Back log 5. Blood pressure 6. Book keeping 7. BullÃ¢â¬â¢s eye 8. By law 9. Catch all 10. Check book 11. Child like 12. Clearing house 13. Court martial 14. Crew neck 15. Cross reference 16. Dog sled 17. Father land 18. Far reaching 19. First hand 20. Free style 21. Freeze dried 22. Fresh water 23. Go between 24. Great uncle 25. Half brother 26. High school 27. Higher ups 28. House hold 29. Inter agency 30. Key word 31. Jewel like 32. Land mass 33. Life size 34. Light year 35. Long term 36. Lower case 37. Main frame 38. Mass produced 39. Mid week 40. Mother ship 41. Multi purpose 42. Near collision 43. North west 44. Off shore 45. On site 46. Over supply 47. Pine cone 48. Pipe line 49. Policy maker 50. Post war 51. Pre existing 52. President elect 53. Pro life 54. Pseudo intellectual 55. Quasi realistic 56. Real time 57. Record breaker 58. River bed 59. Sea coast 60. Self control 61. Semi final 62. Shell like 63. Six pack 64. Snow melt 65. Socio economics 66. Step mother 67. Stomach ache 68. Strong hold 69. Toll free 70. Two fold 71. Under water 72. Vice president 73. Wild life 74. World wide 75. Year round Answers 1. Airborne 2. Antisocial 3. Audiovisual 4. Backlog 5. Blood pressure (in the dictionary, so never hyphenate, except when combined with another adjective, as in Ã¢â¬Å"high-blood-pressure medicationÃ¢â¬ ) 6. Bookkeeping 7. BullÃ¢â¬â¢s-eye 8. Bylaw 9. Catchall 10. Checkbook 11. Childlike 12. Clearinghouse 13. Court-martial 14. Crew neck (in the dictionary, so never hyphenate) 15. Cross-reference 16. Dogsled 17. Fatherland 18. Far-reaching 19. Firsthand 20. Freestyle 21. Freeze-dried 22. Freshwater 23. Go-between 24. Great-uncle 25. Half brother (in the dictionary, so never hyphenate) 26. High school (in the dictionary, so never hyphenate) 27. Higher-ups 28. Household 29. Interagency 30. Keyword 31. Jewel-like (because of the collision of two ls) 32. Landmass 33. Life-size 34. Light-year 35. Long term (hyphenate only when the phrase modifies a following noun) 36. Lowercase 37. Mainframe 38. Mass-produced 39. Midweek 40. Mother ship (in the dictionary, so never hyphenate) 41. Multipurpose 42. Near collision (hyphenate only when the phrase modifies a following noun) 43. Northwest 44. Offshore 45. On-site 46. Oversupply 47. Pinecone 48. Pipeline 49. Policymaker (not in the dictionary, but other -maker constructions, such as winemaker, are closed; if it looks wrong, leave it open) 50. Postwar 51. Preexisting 52. President-elect 53. Pro-life 54. Pseudo-intellectual (not in the dictionary, bust pseudo- constructions in which the second word starts with a vowel, such as pseudo-event, are hyphenated; those in which the second word starts with a consonant, such as pseudopod, are closed) 55. Quasirealistic (not in the dictionary, but most quasi- constructions, such as quasiperiodic, are closed; it if it looks wrong, hyphenate it) 56. Real time (hyphenate only when the phrase modifies a following noun) 57. Record breaker (not in the dictionary, but all other compounds with breaker, such as Ã¢â¬Å"circuit breaker,Ã¢â¬ are open) 58. Riverbed 59. Seacoast 60. Self-control 61. Semifinal 62. Shell-like (hyphenate only because of the collision of the ls) 63. Six-pack 64. Snowmelt 65. Socioeconomics 66. Stepmother 67. Stomachache 68. Stronghold 69. Toll free (hyphenate when the phrase modifies a following noun) 70. Twofold (but hyphenate with a number, as in 10-fold) 71. Underwater 72. Vice president (always open, though other compounds containing vice, such as vice-regent and viceroy, are treated differently) 73. Wildlife 74. Worldwide 75. Year-round Scoring guide 0-25 correct: Always look it up. 26-50 correct: Always look it up. 51-75 correct: Always look it up. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Spelling category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:Types of RhymeThe Six Spellings of "Long E"13 Theatrical Terms in Popular Usage
Posted by Unknown at 2:40 PM
Thursday, November 21, 2019
The Historical and Cultural Importance of Corn - Research Paper Example Though it is a grain, it is used as a vegetable. Evidence points out that it was in use by mayan and Aztec tribes almost 7000 years ago. The Native Americans fondly called it Ã¢â¬ËmahizÃ¢â¬â¢, which in their language meant Ã¢â¬Ëthat sustain usÃ¢â¬â¢. Corn has a remarkable position in setting up a trade network in America there by changing the people from nomadic to agrarian societies. The native tribes helped the early European settlers with the technique of cultivating the corn there by saving much hungry stomach from starvation and death. The first governor of the Plymouth Colony, Governor William Bradford, said once "And sure it was God's good providence that we found this corn for we know not how else we should have doneÃ¢â¬ (History of corn in America). Today, as the largest producer of corn in the world, America produces almost ten million bushels of worldÃ¢â¬â¢s 23 bushels of crop. And the estimated corn production for the 2010-2011 was 12.5 billion bushels (US Co rn Production). According to the National Corn Association, eighty percentage of corn produced in America is consumed by domestic and overseas livestock, poultry farms, and fish farms. It is used for industrial uses like manufacturing nylon fibers, ethanol, and degradable plastics. It is also a main component in baby food, mush, puddings, and many more dishes because of its nutritional values (Major crops grown in the United States). Unlike any other crop, corn has its own cultural significance in the American society. Thanks giving day in the US is a festival held before and after the harvest cycles to thank God for giving good harvest, and to remember their voyage from Europe to America. Thus corn has become a popular symbol of thanks giving in the US culture. Corn in variety colors Ã¢â¬â red, white, blue and yellow is used for decorating dining tables. As Sempel (2010) points out, corn reminds the importance and heritage of the famous harvest festival in 1621 in Plymouth. Ther e are many events like tractor pulls, historical exhibits and square dancing during the corn festivals. People celebrate it by engaging in contests like corn eating, water melon eating etc. Parades, carnivals and even games like sack races, hog calling are also held on that day. This extremely versatile plant is the integral part of Texan culture. For instance, Ã¢â¬Å"Texans used cobs for jug and bottle stoppers, smoking pipes, tool handles, corn shellers, back scratchers, torches, fishing floats, and, most importantly, firewood and meat-smoking fuelÃ¢â¬ (Corn culture). People living in Europe did not know about corn till America was discovered by the Great Sailor Columbus. In Europe, it was considered as a garden plant until it began to be considered as a valuable food crop. Now it is not only cultivated for food purpose but also as staple diets for farm animals. Products like regular corn on cob, popped kernels, and corn meals like corn bread, oil and even alcohol are made from corn. Europeans had played a vital role in making corn an important crop in the world. In olden days, a festival named corn-dolly was celebrated in Europe. A doll made with the ears of corn called corn-mother is carried home and then thoroughly drenched in water. Then it is kept in the barn along with flowers. It was Portuguese who introduced the corn culture in the African society. Agricultural practices such as swidden cultivation and the processing of the corn cobs increased the need of female
Posted by Unknown at 5:12 AM
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Communication law, right, and justice - Essay Example This to Muslims was disrespect to the Quran that is regarded as a holy book and Prophet Muhammad who is a highly valued prophet in the Muslim religion. In another instance John Ruggles was caught saying, Ã¢â¬Å"Jesus is a bastard and His mother Mary is a wore. Ã¢â¬Å"JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s words were offensive the Christian religion and was severely punished. Punishment on blasphemy has been a great debate over the years. On other instances, some blasphemy law-breakers have remained unpunished and this has raised a number of questions on the legal considerations on blasphemy. Punishment on blasphemy remains a controversial issue in the modern society. This is because of the legal considerations on freedom of speech that is well outlined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. This principle states that all human beings are entitled to equal rights and freedom. For instance, in 2005, there were 12 editorial cartoons published on newspaper which demonstrating offensive message to Muhammad and Islam religion.in one of the cartoons about the prophet, he is bent over, a star covering his asshole with a caption that reads Ã¢â¬Å"a star has been bornÃ¢â¬ . In another cartoon, the caption reads Ã¢â¬Å"The film will set the Muslim world on fireÃ¢â¬ , Muhammad is shown naked lying on a bed, being filmed from behind while saying, Ã¢â¬Å"My ass? And you like it my ass? (Hmm.).Muslims described this as mockery which is unacceptable in their religion. Following by the consequences, these published cartoons led to religious extremistsÃ¢â¬â¢ armed attack to Charlie Hebdo who was the publisher. The attack caused 12 peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s deaths. Charlie Hebdo is accused of propagating the culture of hate speech against other religions through posting blasphemous cartoon pictures on newspapers though no action was taken against him. This gives us a good base on the legal
Posted by Unknown at 2:02 AM
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Role of Teacher on Society Essay Who are we? What are we? A lot of what we are was implanted in us as young children by teachers who cared enough to teach it to us. Throughout my life I was taught many of the values I have today by my educators. I was instilled with the skills of how to get along with my peers, knowing right from wrong, and realizing that the best way to get what I wanted was to respect others first. The teachers IÃ¢â¬â¢ve had along the way have inspired me to become a better person. They have made me recognize how I wish to be like them. I too want to help children realize their full potential. I want to be a person in their lives that they can look back on and say she helped me hope and strive for the best that I could be. In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society there are so many distractions in studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ lives. They have to deal with family traumas, drugs, extra-curricular activities, making their place in the world, peer pressure, jobs, etc.. When all these things are on someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s mind itÃ¢â¬â¢s often hard to concentrate on school work and rules. I want the students to come to my class with the attitude that it is a place of refuge. I want them to forget about their fulfilled lives and see that learning can be fun and interesting. I want to make them realize that school isnÃ¢â¬â¢t just a boring place where the cafeteria food is bad. I want them to be interested by finding something they enjoy doing and maybe theyÃ¢â¬â¢ll be able to find their places in this world a little better. It is so hard to make students understand how crucial education is. Especially in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society. I want to try and raise their self-esteem so they can become the people they want to be. I want to be involved in their lives so maybe if they are having problems at home they can feel like they can come to me for comfort or help. There are a few teachers who I could have gone to for assistance. I now appreciate them more than ever because they made me see hope in people. I want to be like them if not better. In order to be the teacher I would like to be I first want to challenge my students to be the best they can be. I agree with a Nation at Risk when it calls for greater academic rigor, and higher expectations for students. I want to enforce these values in my classroom as well. IÃ¢â¬â¢ve always been a fan of learning in groups. I found that a little assistance from fellow classmates always aided me further in my learning progress. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s why cooperative learning will definitely be applied in my classroom. Since cooperative learning helps to amplify students interactions and processing skills it will assist children to strive for the higher expectations that society will put on them as they get older. Cooperative learning can improve on students grades, self-esteem, personal relationships, and understanding of others. Which I feel is a very good incentive to try and promote in my own curriculum. The groups should be small and circular to promote easy conversation. Within the group the assignment should be shared and the work load should be evened out between how many students there are. If the labor is shared then all students will feel like they have contributed in some way and might take it more seriously if a whole group is depending on them instead of just one person. If a student understands that he or she has a responsibility to do something within their group they will more than likely do it, because if they donÃ¢â¬â¢t then the individuals in the group might be upset with them and it would serve as an incentive for them to do well. Students often receive approval or rewards for a job well done in their overall performance. When I obtained praise for my accomplishments I usually always tried to repeat what I did well. IÃ¢â¬â¢m a firm believer in awarding children and reinforcing them when they behave and do a good job. In my classroom, I will try to make students feel like they are doing things right, and maybe they will try and achieve at everything they do. I like the idea of project-based instruction as well as cooperative learning. Trying to have children learn with real life situations is a very good concept. Asking the students higher level questions and having them involved in their own projects gives the students a taste of what Ã¢â¬Å"real lifeÃ¢â¬ has to offer. It also excites and motivates students to want to learn. If I combine cooperative learning and project-based instruction in my classroom I feel that it will be an effective way of approaching learning and getting the curriculum across to the students in a fun way. IÃ¢â¬â¢m aware of the different fundamental principles of teaching. Which include: essentialism, perennialism, progressivism, existentialism, reconstructionism, and behaviorism. Each have their own unique techniques of teaching, but I prefer progressivism. IÃ¢â¬â¢m ecstatic that there was a progressivist movement that stimulated schools to broaden their curricula, making education more relevant to the needs and interests of students. I feel that it was brilliant on John DeweyÃ¢â¬â¢s behalf when he states, Ã¢â¬Å"as we alter our relationship with our environment, we ourselves are made different by the experience. Ã¢â¬ I believe that we are changed everyday by encounters we have. Everything we do alters our lives in some way and that makes us who we are. IÃ¢â¬â¢m a fan of progressivism because it emphasizes the ability to have intelligent free-thinking citizens. I like the idea that progressivism is a hands on technique of teaching. John Dewey thought there should be more observing and experimenting withe the subjects. He proposed a five step methods for solving problems: (1) become aware of the problem, (2) define it, (3) propose various hypotheses to solve it. (4) examine the consequences of each hypothesis in light of previous experience, and (5) test the most likely solution. I want to apply this style of teaching in my classroom and hope that the students respond as well as I think they will. In conclusion, I want to state that I feel strongly about promoting students to excel. I feel it is essential that children are confident about themselves and what they achieve while they are attending school. I want to present to the students in my classroom that they can feel free to be themselves and try to have them interacting with others. In teaching there are teachers and then there are great teachers. I will prove to be a great teacher!
Posted by Unknown at 2:33 PM
Friday, November 15, 2019
The Validity of Creationism and Evolution Abstract: This paper discusses the validity of both creation and evolution and examines whether they can interact with each other. Besides doing my own research, I have chosen to interview four people extensively involved in either Christianity or biology. I specifically picked interviewees who strongly supported either evolution or creation to get both sides of the issue. Two of the people were from United Christian Fellowship (UCF): Andrew Larratt-Smith, leader of UCF, and Ricardo Dawkins, UCF small group member. I also interviewed two biologists: Paul Matsudaira, MIT Biology professor, and Bettina Bauer, a post-doctoral fellow in the HST department. Paul considers his religious beliefs in between agnosticism and Catholic. He was baptized in the Roman Catholic church but has not thought about God extensively. Bettina is neither religious nor anti-religious. She says that if God really exists, it would not change her life. From these interviews, I hoped to gain a better understandi ng of creation and evolution and examine whether they can co-exist. Creationism is based on the belief that God is the intelligent Designer who created our universe and the natural things in it. It is derived from the two stories of Genesis. The first of the stories (Genesis 1:1-2:3) states that God created the heavens and the earth, light, water, vegetation, animals, and then man in the image of him. In the second account (2:4-2:9), God made the heavens and the earth, water, man from the dust, and then vegeta-tion and animals. Clearly these two accounts differ from each other in terms of order. The response I received from creationists (Andrew) was that the Bible must not always be taken literall... ...onists want to put the hand of God behind various scientific processes, scientists cannot show that they are incorrect. His reasoning is that religion is dogmatic and not scientific in its nature. In conclusion, history has shown that religion and science can interact, and that reli gion has adjusted to the renewing knowledge of science. Therefore, the claim that science and religion are in separate spheres is not solid reasoning to avoid interrelating the two. However, religion as a whole does not need to obey scientific laws, nor can it be proved through repeatable experiments. It may never be disproved by science because its strength is gathered from the faith of its followers. Hence when scientific theories such as evolution extend itself to answer questions of why humans were created and what began life, it will ultimately fail in its attempts.
Posted by Unknown at 3:05 AM
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
After the lecture Tutorials and your learning Reading in your study 2. 8. 1 Reading to understand or comprehend 2. 8. 2 Reading for critical comment Checklist for studying faculty units and courses 13 14 14 15 16 16 Chapter 3 The research process: A basic guide 3. 1 The research process 3. 1. 1 Step 1: Understand the assignment topic/question(s) 3. 1. 2 Step 2: Decide what sort of information you need to complete the assignment 3. 1. 3 Step 3: Decide where to look for this information 3. 1. 4 Step 4: Develop and use a search strategy for database searching 3. 1. 5 Step 5: Evaluate the information found and revise the plan 3. 1. 6 Step 6: Presentation 3. 1. 7 Step 7: Final evaluation Using the Internet for research 3. 2. 1 Some further tips for productive Internet research 17 17 17 17 18 18 20 22 22 23 23 3. 2 Chapter 4 Academic writing skills 4. 1 4. 2 4. 3 4. 4 Characteristics of successful writing 4. 1. 1 Responding to the task Exam question, Accounting and Finance 4. 2. 1 Initial analysis, key terms and directions Structuring your writing clearly 4. 3. 1 Writing structure Forming and expressing your perspective on the task 4. 4. 1 Ã¢â¬Å"Crystallised responseÃ¢â¬ 4. 4. 2 Plan the response Supporting your perspective 4. 5. 1 Paragraph structure 4. 5. 2 Use of references Presenting a consistent and logical response Expressing your ideas clearly 4. 7. 1 Formal academic language 4. 7. 2 Some other features of academic language Checklist for academic writing skills 25 25 25 27 27 27 28 29 29 30 31 31 32 33 33 34 34 36 4. 5 4. 6 4. 7 4. 8 Chapter 5 Writing essays 5. 1 5. 2 5. 3 5. 4 Analyse the task Synthesise your information Plan the essay Reference the sources of information 37 37 37 37 38 Chapter 6 Writing a literature review 6. 1 6. 2 6. 3 6. 4 The nature of a literature review Procedure for completing a literature review Writing the literature review Checklist for a literature review 39 39 40 40 41 Chapter 7 Report writing 7. 1 The process 7. 1. 1 Identify the purpose of the report 7. 1. 2 Identify the readers and their needs 7. 1. 3 Research the topic 7. 1. 4 Outline the report 7. 1. 5 Write the draft 7. 1. 6 Edit the draft 7. 1. 7 The finished product 7. 2 Report presentation and layout 7. 2. 1 Structure of a report 7. 3 Report writing checklist 42 42 42 42 42 43 43 43 44 44 44 46 Chapter 8 Case study method 8. 1 8. 2 Some general issues Problem solving case format. 49 49 49 Chapter 9 Academic integrity and honesty: avoiding plagiarism in written work 9. 1 9. 2 What is plagiarism? Monash University Statute 4. 1 and policy regarding plagiarism 9. 2. 1 What happens when plagiarism is suspected 9. 2. 2 StudentsÃ¢â¬â¢ responsibility Using references appropriately in your written work Use of references in writing 9. 4. 1 Unsuitable use of references Suitable integration of references 9. 5. 1 Techniques for using an authorÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas 9. 5. 2 A summary 9. 5. 3 Paraphrasing, or writing in your own words Conclusion 51 51 52 53 53 54 54 54 55 55 56 56 57 9. 3 9. 4 9. 5 9. 6 Chapter 10 Referencing. 10. 1 10. 2 10. 3 10. 4 What is referencing? When should you reference? Why should you reference your work? Referencing using the APA style 10. 4. 1 Creating in-text citations 10. 4. 2 Creating a reference list Footnoting 10. 5. 1 In-text citations using footnotes 10. 5. 2 Creating the bibliography 58 58 58 59 59 59 62 69 70 74 10. 5 Chapter 11 Presentation skills 11. 1 11. 2 11. 3 What is a presentation? Planning and preparation 11. 2. 1 Analysing your audience Presentation design 11. 3. 1 Objective 11. 3. 2 Content 11. 3. 3 Structure Visual support 11. 4. 1 Handouts Delivery 11. 5. 1 Methods of delivery 11. 5. 2 Rehearsal Nerve control 11. 5. 3 11. 5. 4 Your voice 11. 5. 5 Non-verbal communication Group presentations 11. 6. 1 Team balance 11. 6. 2 Transitions 11. 6. 3 Support for the speaker 11. 6. 4 Your role as coach Evaluating the presentation Why do some presentations go wrong? 76 76 76 76 76 76 77 77 79 79 80 80 80 80 80 81 82 82 82 82 82 83 83 11. 4 11. 5 11. 6 11. 7 11. 8 Chapter 12 Exam strategies Preparing for exams 12. 1. 1 Establish the type of exam 12. 1. 2 Develop a broad understanding of the unitÃ¢â¬â¢s objectives 12. 1. 3 Develop summaries of topics 12. 1. 4 Review unit material and topics 12. 1. 5 Practise past exam questions 12. 1. 6 Multiple choice questions 12. 1. 7 Short answer and essay questions 12. 1. 8 Calculation questions 12. 2 Operating in the exam 12. 2. 1 Reading and noting time 12. 2. 2 Completing the exam Answering multiple choice questions 12. 2. 3 12. 2. 4 Completing written response questions 12. 3 Checklist for exams 12. 1 84 84 84 84 85 85 85 85 86 87 87 87 87 88 88 88 Q Manual Preface and Acknowledgements The purpose of the Q (for Quality) Manual is to provide new students with practical and easily accessible information regarding university-level study. As its name suggests, this publication is aimed at increasing your effectiveness as a student. For many of you who have not experienced university level study, the Q Manual will provide you with ideas, suggestions and guidelines to enable you to achieve academic success by producing quality work, and getting it submitted on time. We suggest you read the Q Manual thoroughly and refer to it often throughout your course of study. The Q Manual commences with an overview of the Faculty of Business and Economics, its goals, structure and expectations regarding student performance, as well as important policy information about student assessment. The next chapter provides useful advice in relation to approaches to study at the university level. Then follows the bulk of the Q Manual, which focuses on research skills, academic writing skills, and in particular, chapters devoted to commonly required academic assignments, such as essays, literature reviews, reports and case study method. The section relating to academic writing and assignment preparation is followed by chapters covering academic honesty and referencing techniques. The final sections of the Q Manual cover oral presentation skills and exam strategies. There are many people whose valuable contributions to this edition of the Q Manual must be acknowledged. They include (in no particular order): Andrew Dixon, Caulfield Campus Library David Horne, Caulfield Campus Library Owen Hughes, Faculty of Business and Economics Sally Joy, Faculty of Business and Economics Lynne Macdonald, Faculty of Business and Economics Michael Scorgie, Department of Accounting and Finance Claire Tanner, Faculty of Arts Our special thanks go to Lynne Macdonald and Claire Tanner for the many hours spent collating and editing the content and for coordinating production of the Q Manual. Without your efforts and patience, this edition could not have been published. Sincere thanks also go to my dear friend and colleague, Glenda Crosling, who has collaborated with me for many years on a number of significant educational projects for the faculty. A dedicated educator, Glenda works enthusiastically and tirelessly, keeping an open mind, and most importantly, always retaining her wonderful sense of humour! Glenda also thanks Nell for her collegiality, dedication, inspiration and hard work on this and other educational projects. Together, we have produced a publication that we hope will assist you in your studies. Finally, we wish you a stimulating, challenging and rewarding learning experience throughout your undergraduate and postgraduate studies with the Faculty of Business and Economics. Nell Kimberley Department of Management Faculty of Business and Economics January, 2008 Glenda Crosling Education Adviser Faculty of Business and Economics Chapter 1 Introduction 1. 1 Welcome Congratulations on your selection to study one of the courses offered by the Faculty of Business and Economics at Monash University. This manual is intended to provide you with information on how to produce quality work and achieve the best possible results in your examinations. The major goal of the university is to assist you to obtain an excellent education so that you may take your place in society as a well-qualified graduate. It is important to note that while the courses provide the teaching support and the necessary framework for your studies, success can be achieved only through your personal commitment and dedication to hard work throughout all the years of your course. The following information is aimed at familiarising you with the Monash University study environment and increasing your effectiveness as a Monash student, thereby enabling you to reach your potential. For those of you who are experiencing university level study for the first time, this manual will lay an important foundation and prepare you for a new world. 1. 2 Monash University Monash University was established in 1961 and named after General Sir John Monash (1865Ã¢â¬â1931). Sir John was a soldier, scholar and engineer, and the Commanding General of the Australian forces in France in World War 1. In addition, as the first Chairman of the State Electricity Commission, he took on the immense task of overseeing the development of the LaTrobe ValleyÃ¢â¬â¢s brown coal resources. Sir John was a man of wide interests and vast intellectual range. He was this countryÃ¢â¬â¢s first Doctor of Engineering and exemplifies the UniversityÃ¢â¬â¢s motto Ã¢â¬â Ancora Imparo (I am still learning). The university now has a population of more than 50,000 students from over 100 countries, who speak 90 languages. There are eight Monash campuses and two centres, in Italy and London. The primary pursuits of teaching and research are carried out in the universityÃ¢â¬â¢s ten faculties. The faculties, which each cover a specific body of knowledge, are: Art and Design; Arts; Business and Economics; Education; Engineering; Information Technology; Law; Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences; Pharmacy; and Science. 1. 3 1. 3. 1 Faculty of Business and Economics Goals The aim of the faculty is to use its scale, scope and unique internal diversity to become an international leader in the pursuit, dissemination and analysis of knowledge, particularly in the disciplines of accounting, banking, econometrics, economics, finance, management, marketing, and tourism. By the application of such knowledge, its staff and students will contribute to the economic, social and commercial development of Australia and other countries in an increasingly globalised environment. 1. 3. 2 Faculty structure The Faculty of Business and Economics is the largest faculty in the university, with more than 17,000 students enrolled over five Australian campuses at Berwick, Caulfield, Clayton, Gippsland and Peninsula, as well as in Malaysia and South Africa. In addition to a diverse range of undergraduate bachelors degrees, the faculty offers a comprehensive range of graduate courses including an executive certificate, graduate certificates and diplomas, masters degrees by coursework and research, the Master of Business Administration, the Doctor of Business Administration, the Master of Philosophy and the Doctor of Philosophy. Courses are delivered on campus, usually through lectures, tutorials and WebCT Vista, while offcampus students are catered for by distance education. 1 The Dean and the main faculty office are located on the Caulfield campus. In addition, there are faculty staff located at the other campuses. Go to http://www. buseco. monash. edu. au/student/contact/ for location and contact details. 1. 3. 3 Departments and centres The Business and Economics faculty is subdivided into organisations that are responsible for particular areas of knowledge. There are six departments and two research centres. The departments are: Accounting and Finance, Business Law and Taxation, Econometrics and Business Statistics, Economics, Management, and Marketing. The research centres are: Centre of Policy Studies, and Centre for Health Economics. They cover fields of study including accounting, banking, business law, business statistics, economics, econometrics, finance, international business, management, human resource management, marketing, taxation and tourism. Whatever your major or areas of study it is essential that you have an understanding of each of the disciplines and how they interact with each other in the overall operations of a business organisation. 1. 3. 4 Aims for learning at Monash University and in the Faculty of Business and Economics The university and the faculty recognise the needs of students for their lives following graduation. As a Monash graduate you will be operating in a globalised and rapidly-changing world, and the university and faculty aim to develop in studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ attributes beyond the ability to understand and operate competently with course and unit content. The aims are that students will develop in ways that will enable them to: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Engage in an internationalised and increasingly globalised world; Ã¢â¬ ¢ Engage in discovery, analysis, integration and application for problem solving and learning with knowledge; Ã¢â¬ ¢ Communicate competently orally and in writing across cultures and settings, including their specific disciplines. As you undertake your studies, you will notice an emphasis on these attributes and you will be engaged in activities and tasks to help you develop them. In the following chapters of this guide, we explain the influences of these attributes on your approach to study. 1. 3. 5 Units Each department offers a wide range of undergraduate and postgraduate units. In a three-year undergraduate degree, there are twenty-four units, with four units to be taken in each semester (parttime students would normally undertake two units each semester). The unit leader or coordinator is responsible for the administration of the particular unit. You can consult with your unit leader, and or coordinator in larger units you may also consult with the other lecturers and tutors. 1. 3. 6 Role of lecturers/tutors Lecturers and tutors have a key role as facilitators of your learning. They are able and most willing to help you with your studies and can be contacted using your student email account. Their email addresses are located in the unit outline. Alternatively, academic staff can be contacted during their consultation hours which are often posted on their door or outside the main administration office. 1. 3. 7 Role of on-line sources of information Monash has adopted a learning management system which provides you with access to on-line unit information. The web contains information that you need to know for the unit, both of an administrative nature as well as useful material for your studies. 2 1. 3. 8 Role of course directors/coordinators If you are encountering academic performance issues, course progression and similar problems you should initially discuss these with enrolment officers or course advisers. You may, occasionally, then be referred to course directors or course coordinators to help with these issues. Undergraduate students are referred to course directors or course coordinators by the faculty office and postgraduate students by departmental administration staff. If referred, course directors and coordinators are available during their consultation hours. 1. 3. 9 Additional important information The Undergraduate and Postgraduate Handbooks and the Student Resource Guide provide important information regarding various aspects of university life. The Student Resource Guide is distributed to all students at the time of initial enrolment and is available on-line at www. monash. edu. au/pubs. It contains details of the universityÃ¢â¬â¢s code of practice for teaching and learning, as well as grievance and appeals procedures. Further copies can be obtained from Student Service Centres on all campuses. An excellent resource for students is also available on-line via the student link on the Business and Economics Faculty webpage at http://www. buseco. monash. edu. au/student/. The site contains links to important information regarding: courses and units, admissions and enrolments, schools and departments, exams and results, administration, study resources, calendars and timetables, IT and computing, support services, careers and employment, international students, and clubs and associations. 1. 4 Faculty expectations of student performance As students of the faculty, there are a number of units that you will study as part of your course. Although these units may have differing methods of assessment, the faculty has the following expectations of your behaviour and performance. 1. 4. 1. Attendance and participation at lectures and tutorials Lectures and tutorials are central to your performance in the university. Lectures provide the material you require in order to understand the overall nature and direction of the unit. Important concepts and analysis can be emphasised by the lecturer and put into context for the student. Tutorials are a vital part of your studies. They reinforce lecture material and provide you with an opportunity to discuss material presented in lectures, as well as to ask questions. Tutorials also provide you with the opportunity to develop your oral communication skills. The material presented is not designed to give you one view on a topic but to facilitate your understanding of the issue under discussion. Where there are alternative views on an issue, you should learn to articulate, critically approach and assess these differing positions. 1. 4. 2 Special consideration and extension of time for submission of an assessment task Students need to use a Special Consideration Application when applying for Special Consideration for overall assessment, end-of-semester examinations, or additional assessment for a unit (or units) studied during the current semester. Please refer to the following webpage for information on both faculty and university special consideration policy and procedures: http://www. buseco. monash. edu. au/secretariat/policies/spec-con. html Students who require more time to complete a piece of work should apply for an extension of time for submission of an assessment task. Reasons for special consideration include serious short term circumstances beyond the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s control, such as illness, accident, personal trauma, family emergency or compassionate grounds. Applications should be discussed with the examiner/lecturer/tutor responsible for assessing the task. Please refer to the current student faculty webpage for forms and further information: http://www. buseco. monash. edu. au/student/exams/specconsemester. html 3 1. 4. 3 Workload You are expected to undertake private study in addition to attending lectures and tutorials. Preparation of work to be discussed in tutorials is essential. You will also be required to complete assignments and projects and submit them on the due dates. When taking into account the work carried out during mid-semester breaks and exam weeks, you would expect to study more than thirty hours each week. 1. 4. 4 Self-reliance Compared to your school experience, at the university you are expected to be more independent and self-reliant. In contrast to teachers at school, lecturers and tutors usually teach large numbers of students, sometimes as many as one thousand. They are happy to assist you, but you need to approach the staff member and be clear about what you wish to discuss. It is also your responsibility as a self-reliant student to attend lectures and tutorials, prepare your tutorial work and submit all written work on time. 1. 4. 5 Time management. The expectation at the university is that you learn to manage your own time. This applies to full-time students who have a great deal of time available outside of classes, as well as for part-time students who have to balance work and study. The following chapter on study techniques in this manual provides, among other things, some helpful hints on how to best manage your time and get the most out of your career as a student. 1. 5 Student assessment Assessment in a unit may be made up of several components: a formal examination, essays, tests, assignments, oral presentations and tutorial participation. Assessment details for each unit are provided in the unit guide that you will receive in the first week of each semester. The final mark that a student receives in a unit will be determined by the board of examiners on the recommendation of the chief examiner, taking into account all aspects of assessment. The rights of students to have assessed work re-marked are determined at the departmental level. A student can only be failed after the exam paper has been marked by two staff members. All results are reviewed by the unit leader. You can find further information relating to the universityÃ¢â¬â¢s assessment in undergraduate units and the responsibilities of examiners using the main policy bank link at: http://www. buseco. monash. edu. au/secretariat /policies/ 1. 5. 1 Examinations For details of examination regulations, please refer to the Monash University Calendar: http://www. monash. edu. au/pubs/calendar/ 1. 5. 2 Use of English dictionaries and calculators As English is the language of instruction within Monash University, foreign language translation dictionaries are not permitted to be used by students sitting examinations. Calculators are permitted if specified on the examination paper, but some units may have a calculator restriction. Students are advised to familiarise themselves with any calculator restrictions applying in units they are studying. For permitted calculator(s) for examinations and units of study go to the faculty policy link at: http://www. buseco. monash. edu. au/secretariat/policies/calculator. html 4 1. 5. 3 Results At the end of each semester, following the completion of examinations, a board of examiners considers student performance as a whole before the results are published. All undergraduate and coursework graduate students who pass are graded into the categories of high distinction, distinction, credit and pass. Honours courses use a different grading system, classified into first class, second class division A, second class division B, third class and pass. 1. 5. 4 Marks and grades Following is a list of marks and grades used within the faculty: 0Ã¢â¬â49 40Ã¢â¬â49 45Ã¢â¬â49 50Ã¢â¬â59 60Ã¢â¬â69 70Ã¢â¬â79 80Ã¢â¬â100 N NS NP P C D HD NE WH Fail Fail, supplementary exam awarded by Board of Examiners only to graduate students and under special circumstances Near pass is only awarded to undergraduate students. It may be awarded for the last unit to complete a degree. Pass Credit Distinction High distinction Not examined. Used when a unit is taught over two semesters Withheld. Used, for example, when assessment is outstanding due to a special consideration application or incomplete assessment. DEF Deferred examination granted SFR Satisfied faculty requirements This grading system will be current until 2009. For amendments after this time go to: http://www. buseco. monash. edu. au/secretariat/policies/methods-assessment. html 1. 5. 5 Honours grading Honours units are graded as follows: Below 50 50Ã¢â¬â59 60Ã¢â¬â69 70Ã¢â¬â79 80Ã¢â¬â100 Fail HIII HIIB HIIA HI 5 1. 5. 6 Examples of grades and corresponding achievement levels HD High Distinction 80Ã¢â¬â100% D Distinction 70Ã¢â¬â79% A very high standard of work which demonstrates originality and insight C Credit 60Ã¢â¬â69% Demonstrates a high level of understanding and presentation and a degree of originality and insight Thorough understanding of core texts and materials P Pass 50Ã¢â¬â59% Satisfies the minimum requirements N Fail 0Ã¢â¬â49% Fails to satisfy the minimum requirements General description. Outstanding or exceptional work in terms of understanding, interpretation and presentation Strong evidence of independent reading beyond core texts and materials Demonstrates insight, awareness and understanding of deeper and more subtle aspects of the topic. Ability to consider topic in the broader context of the discipline Demonstrates imagination or flair. Demonstrates originality and independent thought Highly developed analytical and evaluative skills Ability to solve very challenging problems Reading Evidence of reading beyond core texts and materials Evidence of having read core texts and materials. Very little evidence of having read any of the core texts and materials Knowledge of topic Evidence of an awareness Sound knowledge of and understanding of principles and concepts deeper and more subtle aspects of the topic Knowledge of principles Scant knowledge of and concepts at least principles and concepts adequate to communicate intelligently in the topic and to serve as a basis for further study Articulation of argument Evidence of imagination or flair. Evidence of originality and independent thought Clear evidence of analytical and evaluative skills. Well-reasoned argument based on broad evidence Sound argument based on evidence Very little evidence of ability to construct coherent argument Analytical and evaluative skills Problem solving Evidence of analytical and evaluative skills Some evidence of analytical and evaluative skills Very little evidence of analytical and evaluative skills Ability to solve non-routine Ability to use and apply problems fundamental concepts and skills Well developed skills in expression and presentation Good skills in expression and presentation. Accurate and consistent acknowledgement of sources. Adequate problem-solving Very little evidence of skills problem-solving skills Expression and presentation appropriate to the discipline Highly developed skills in expression and presentation Adequate skills in expression and presentation Inadequate skills in expression and presentation. Inaccurate and inconsistent acknowledgement of sources Source: University of Adelaide 2005 6 Chapter 2 Approaching study in the Faculty of Business and Economics Introduction Study at university is like a full-time job that requires commitment, and cannot just be added on to a range of other interests. It differs in many ways from study in other educational settings. A major difference is the independence and self reliance expected of students in their study. This idea concerns: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Managing your time, balancing your study with other commitments. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Your approach to learning in your units. In this chapter, we discuss the implications of independence and self reliance for the way you approach your studies. Assistance with time management is also available from university learning and personal support services, go to http://www. monash.edu/pubs/handbooks/srg/srg-266. html for faculty and campus contacts. 2. 1 The study Ã¢â¬Å"mindsetÃ¢â¬ The units that you study present information, concepts and theories. It is expected that you will understand these fully. In addition, you must think critically and analytically so that you can evaluate and apply the knowledge, concepts and theories to different situations. You also need to think about the information from international and global perspectives, and to communicate your thinking clearly and appropriately orally and in writing. This means that you must do more in your written work than merely describe the concepts and knowledge, which will not get you good marks. There are times when you do need to provide definitions and an overview of concepts and theories, but such information usually only functions as an introduction for your integration of ideas, critical analysis and application, in relation to the issue, topic and task. Integration of information and critical and analytical thinking are central to the idea of independence in study. It means that you take an objective approach to the knowledge, concepts and theories. Such an approach is necessary so that you can: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Integrate sometimes contrasting ideas from a range of sources and develop your own perspective on an issue or topic in relation to these; Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ËPull apartÃ¢â¬â¢ the knowledge in your units and explain how the parts all work together (analysis); Ã¢â¬ ¢ Evaluate the strengths, weaknesses, advantages and disadvantages of knowledge, concepts and theories for particular situations (critical approach). This emphasis may differ from how you approached your study in other educational settings. For instance, you may have expected there to be one right answer, or two sides to an issue or topic. In your university studies, you need to understand that there are multiple views surrounding a topic or issue. The suitability of the view that you develop, often by synthesising several views, depends on the perspective from which you look at the issue. Such a concept of the relativity of knowledge applies to all the business and economics disciplines. In accounting, for instance, particular accounting situations are interpreted in terms of the Standard Accounting Concepts, and in econometrics and business statistics, a set of data is interpreted in relation to a particular purpose, or the needs of a particular user. Your ability to operate in the way explained above is based on you understanding the nature of academic enquiry and discovery, as we explain in the next section. 7 2. 2 Academic enquiry, discovery and independence in study Academic enquiry and discovery are concerned with the development or advancement of knowledge in a field of study, which occurs through research and investigation. Students engage in academic enquiry and discovery, to some degree, when they integrate and apply knowledge, concepts and theories to different situations. Thus, in university study, there are: Ã¢â¬ ¢ No absolutes Ã¢â¬ ¢ Knowledge evolves as researchers challenge, confirm or modify earlier understandings. When investigating an issue for an assignment task that is based on evidence from the literature, you need to overview and integrate the range of views surrounding the issue or topic. When you have formed your response and structured your written work to express this, you must indicate to your reader how you have arrived at that view. That is, the ideas and views that you read in the literature function as the Ã¢â¬Ëbuilding blocksÃ¢â¬â¢ of your response. In your writing, if you do not explain to your reader the evidence or the building blocks for your view, you are only expressing opinions. These are ideas unsubstantiated by evidence and are not valued in university study. Another perspective The manager has a range of roles that are significant in the operations of an organisation, and decision making is one of these (Mintzberg, 1979) One perspective Decision making is an important aspect but only part of the managerÃ¢â¬â¢s role (Lee, 2000). Decision making in the managerÃ¢â¬â¢s role. Further perspective Decision making is the foundation of a managerÃ¢â¬â¢s role (Brown, 2002) Figure 1: Multiple views of a topic or issue Figure 1 depicts the situation in relation to a topic in a unit that relies on views in the literature. Note how decision-making in the managerÃ¢â¬â¢s role is seen from different perspectives by different authors. In a unit such as econometrics and business statistics, you may be required to analyse a set of data from a perspective of, for instance, a marketing manager, or a city council. Thus, the information in the data that would be relevant for the former would be on aspects such as sales, while for the city council which is concerned with providing services, the emphasis would be on the cityÃ¢â¬â¢s population and its needs. Thus, in units that rely on data such as econometrics and business statistics, you need to analyse the data, form a perspective on the issue from the data analysis, and then select from your data to support the viewpoint you have developed. In a unit such as economics, it means being able to distinguish between facts and value statements. 8 2. 3 Approaching study in the faculty disciplines As you continue with your faculty study, you will realise that the approaches to knowledge in the disciplines of the faculty differ in some ways. Understanding such variation will help you adjust your thinking and approach across your units of study. This is particularly applicable if you are a double degree student and studying across two faculties. For instance, when you are studying a first year law unit in your Business and Economics degree, you will be presented with problem question assignments. You approach and think about these, and structure information differently, than you would for essays in a unit such as management, or, for example, reports in a marketing unit. You are using different forms of data and evidence, and applying critical analysis in ways that are particular to the unit and its discipline. The approach that the disciplines take to knowledge is reflected in the way information is put together in the texts and in lectures. These exemplify the characteristics of the particular discipline. To develop some understanding, you should think about your units in terms of: Ã¢â¬ ¢ The type of data and info.
Posted by Unknown at 3:36 PM
Sunday, November 10, 2019
The poem, Ã¢â¬Å"Joe LawsonÃ¢â¬â¢s WifeÃ¢â¬ by Lorna Crozier is a symbolically rich work. The poem tells the story of a man who commits suicide, and how his wife reacts to her husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s death. There is obvious symbolism in both the sun and milk in the poem. The sun personifies Mrs. LawsonÃ¢â¬â¢s conscious efforts to absorb and accept the news of her husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s suicide. She goes from only barely understanding what is going on, and being in complete shock to the realization that her husband is dead fully sinking in. The milk is representative of normalcy in Mrs. LawsonÃ¢â¬â¢s life, and it is the everyday chore of milking the cows that she clings to when her husband dies. The sun plays a significant role in symbolically showing the reader how the news of her husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s death is gripping Mrs. Lawson. The sun builds up tension as it rises, symbolically representing her husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s death sinking in as she struggles to accept this morbid news. The first mention of the sun occurs in the middle of the play. The doctor attempts to get Mrs. Lawson to go into the house and away from the gruesome scene of her husband, but she refuses to leave his side. Crozier writes, Ã¢â¬Å"The sun was rising, its splinters from the cracks in the walls falling all around herÃ¢â¬ . In these lines, the sun is representative of the news of her husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s death and the revelation that she is alone. The splinters from the sun, or small beams of light coming through the cracks of the barn show that the news is just starting to sink in, and Mrs. Lawson is only slightly aware of what is going on. The sun is referenced again toward the end of the poem, with Crozier telling the reader, Ã¢â¬Å"The sunÃ¢â¬â¢s bright nails pounding throughÃ¢â¬ . The use of the sun, again, to describe how the death of Mr. Lawson is affecting his wife is symbolic. Whereas when she first saw her husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s body, she was in shock and barely comprehending what had happened, at this point she is fully aware of her husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s death, and the realization of this hits her much harder, like nails pounding into her. The references to milk within the poem are also very symbolically significant. The ritual of milking the cows appears to be a common, everyday chore for Mrs. Lawson. For this reason, upon the news of her husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s death, Mrs. Lawson begins milking the cows, almost in a sense of grasping for something normal in her life. The milk is symbolic of the normalcy that Mrs. Lawson had in her life prior to her husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s suicide. After the men have taken Mr. LawsonÃ¢â¬â¢s body from the barn, Ã¢â¬Å"She pulled the wooden stool to the stall and milked the cow. Ã¢â¬ It is almost as if by milking the cows, Mrs. Lawson is attempting to go back to a time when her husband was still alive. Her complete focus, however, is on his death, as she doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t even bother to put a pail under the cow to catch the milk. Mrs. Lawson milks the cows just like she probably did every other day of her life in an attempt to return any sort of normalcy to her now chaotic life. Lorna CrozierÃ¢â¬â¢s poem, Ã¢â¬Å"Joe LawsonÃ¢â¬â¢s WifeÃ¢â¬ exhibits two symbolically important elements. The first element is the sun, which represents the news of her husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s suicide sinking into Mrs. LawsonÃ¢â¬â¢s conscious mind. At first, only a few streaks of light shine though, but by the end of the poem the light is hitting her like a nail being pounded into her. The second important symbol in this poem is the milk. The milk is representative of normalcy in Mrs. LawsonÃ¢â¬â¢s life. Milking the cows is obviously part of her everyday routine, and she clings to this familiar chore in an attempt to return her life to any sort of normal state.
Posted by Unknown at 9:34 AM
Friday, November 8, 2019
Flag burning essays For many Americans the flag of the United States has been a symbol of freedom. However political turmoil and involvement in foreign wars has led to a new form of protest, protected under the first amendment of the Constitution-flag burning. Citizenship in America is not easy. Accepting anothers beliefs to be his own and not to forcibly or otherwise project your beliefs onto him simply because you think you are right. The act of desecrating the American Flag is often considered an act of true freedom. This act has been the center of legal controversy for several decades. In order to convey a clear representation of this controversial subject, we must begin with the basis on which it is centered. The First Amendment of the Constitution states: Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances. The American Flag has a great and deep meaning to me. It not only represents the United States, but also the freedom that we benefit from and the lives of the men and women who have fought to preserve freedom. To study the opposing views surrounding flag desecration is an extremely important endeavor. To fully understand both points of view provides true meaning to the word citizenship. I personally do not endorse the act of flag burning, but as an American and a citizen of this country, I do willingly support and believe in the first ten amendments to the Constitution, otherwise known as the Bill of Rights. Signs of patriotism are revealed daily everywhere in our country. This patriotism is often displayed through the American Flag. Americans proudly fly the flag just about everywhere. It waves over state capitols, government buildings, schools, and businesses. Citizens proudly display the fla...
Posted by Unknown at 3:32 AM
Tuesday, November 5, 2019
American Literary Periods American literature does not easily lend itself to classification by time period. Given the size of the United States and its varied population, there are often several literary movements happening at the same time. However, this hasnt stopped literary scholars from making an attempt. Here are some of the most commonly agreed upon periods of American literature from the colonial period to the present. The Colonial Period (1607Ã¢â¬â1775) This period encompasses the founding of Jamestown up to a decade before the Revolutionary War. The majority of writings were historical, practical, or religious in nature. Some writers not to miss from this period include Phillis Wheatley, Cotton Mather, William Bradford, Anne Bradstreet, and John Winthrop. The first Slave Narrative, A Narrative of the Uncommon Sufferings, and Surprizing Deliverance of Briton Hammon, a Negro Man, was published during this period, in 1760 Boston. The Revolutionary Age (1765Ã¢â¬â1790) Beginning a decade before the Revolutionary War and ending about 25 years later, this period includes the writings of Thomas Jefferson, Thomas Paine, James Madison, and Alexander Hamilton. This is arguably the richest period of political writing since classical antiquity. Important works include the Ã¢â¬Å"Declaration of Independence,Ã¢â¬ The Federalist Papers, and the poetry of Joel Barlow and Philip Freneau. The Early National Period (1775Ã¢â¬â1828) This era in American literature is responsible for notable first works, such as the first American comedy written for the stage- The Contrast by Royall Tyler, written in 1787- and the first American Novel- The Power of Sympathy by William Hill, written in 1789. Washington Irving, James Fenimore Cooper, and Charles Brockden Brown are credited with creating distinctly American fiction, while Edgar Allan Poe and William Cullen Bryant began writing poetry that was markedly different from that of the English tradition. The American Renaissance (1828Ã¢â¬â1865) Also known as the Romantic Period in America and the Age of Transcendentalism, this period is commonly accepted to be the greatest of American literature. Major writers include Walt Whitman, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Edgar Allan Poe, and Herman Melville.Ã Emerson, Thoreau, and Margaret Fuller are credited with shaping the literature and ideals of many later writers. Other major contributions include the poetry of Henry Wadsworth Longfellow and the short stories of Melville, Poe, Hawthorne, and Harriet Beecher Stowe. Additionally, this era is the inauguration point of American literary criticism, lead by Poe, James Russell Lowell, and William Gilmore Simms. The years 1853 and 1859 brought the first novels written by African-American authors, both male and female:Ã Clotel, by William Wells BrownÃ and Our Nig, by Harriet E. Wilson. The Realistic Period (1865Ã¢â¬â1900) As a result of the American Civil War, Reconstruction and the age of industrialism, American ideals and self-awareness changed in profound ways, and American literature responded.Ã Certain romantic notions of the American Renaissance were replaced by realistic descriptions of American life, such as those represented in the works of William Dean Howells, Henry James, and Mark Twain. This period also gave rise to regional writing, such as the works of Sarah Orne Jewett, Kate Chopin, Bret Harte, Mary Wilkins Freeman, and George W. Cable. In addition to Walt Whitman, another master poet, Emily Dickinson, appeared at this time. The Naturalist Period (1900Ã¢â¬â1914) This relatively short period is defined by its insistence on recreating life as life really is, even more so than the realists had been doing in the decades before. American Naturalist writers such as Frank Norris, Theodore Dreiser, and Jack London created some of the most powerfully raw novels in American literary history. Their characters are victims who fall prey to their own base instincts and to economic and sociological factors. Edith Wharton wrote some of her most beloved classics, such as The Custom of the Country (1913), Ethan Frome (1911), and The House of Mirth (1905) during this time period. The Modern Period (1914Ã¢â¬â1939) After the American Renaissance, the Modern Period is the second most influential and artistically rich age of American writing. Its major writers include such powerhouse poets as E.E. Cummings, Robert Frost, Ezra Pound, William Carlos Williams, Marianne Moore, Langston Hughes, Carl Sandburg, T.S. Eliot, Wallace Stevens, and Edna St. Vincent Millay. Novelists and other prose writers of the time include Willa Cather, John Dos Passos, Edith Wharton, F. Scott Fitzgerald, John Steinbeck, Ernest Hemingway, William Faulkner, Gertrude Stein, Sinclair Lewis, Thomas Wolfe, and Sherwood Anderson. The Modern Period contains within it certain major movements including the Jazz Age, the Harlem Renaissance, and the Lost Generation. Many of these writers were influenced by World War I and the disillusionment that followed, especially the expatriates of the Lost Generation. Furthermore, the Great Depression and the New Deal resulted in some of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s greatest social issue writing, such as t he novels of Faulkner and Steinbeck, and the drama of Eugene OÃ¢â¬â¢Neill. The Beat Generation (1944Ã¢â¬â1962) Beat writers, such as Jack Kerouac and Allen Ginsberg, were devoted to anti-traditional literature, in poetry and prose, and anti-establishment politics. This time period saw a rise in confessional poetry and sexuality in literature, which resulted in legal challenges and debates over censorship in America. William S. Burroughs and Henry Miller are two writers whose works faced censorship challenges. These two greats, along with other writers of the time, also inspired the counterculture movements of the next two decades. The Contemporary Period (1939Ã¢â¬âPresent) After World War II, American literature has become broad and varied in terms of theme, mode, and purpose. Currently, there is little consensus as to how to go about classifying the last 80 years into periods or movements- more time must pass, perhaps, before scholars can make these determinations. That being said, there are a number of important writers since 1939 whose works may already be considered Ã¢â¬Å"classicÃ¢â¬ and who are likely to become canonized.Ã Some of these very established names are:Ã Kurt Vonnegut, Amy Tan, John Updike, Eudora Welty, James Baldwin, Sylvia Plath, Arthur Miller, Toni Morrison, Ralph Ellison, Joan Didion, Thomas Pynchon, Elizabeth Bishop, Tennessee Williams, Philip Roth, Sandra Cisneros, Richard Wright, Tony Kushner, Adrienne Rich, Bernard Malamud, Saul Bellow, Joyce Carol Oates, Thornton Wilder, Alice Walker, Edward Albee, Norman Mailer, John Barth, Maya Angelou, and Robert Penn Warren.
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